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Summary tables for macroscale meteorology models

Prognostic equations and calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ECHMERITdivergence, ln(surface pressure)
EMACdivergenceln(surface pressure)
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GMEO3 mixing ratio in stratosphere
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UMPrognostic cloud scheme available.
UM_CAM
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Diagnostically calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GME
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UM
UM_CAM
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Model type

2D3Dmeteorologychemistry & transport
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GME
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UM
UM_CAM
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Approximations

Boussinesqanelastichydrostaticflat earthremarks
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GME
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UMNo significant approximations to continuous equations. This includes NOT using the shallow atmosphere/traditional approximation common in th emajority of models.
UM_CAM
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Parametrizations

turbulence schemedeep convectionsurface exchangesurface temperaturesurface humidityradiationunresolved orographic dragclouds / rainremarks
ECHMERIT(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)
EMACsubmodel CONVECT; H. Tost, P. Jöckel, J. Lelieveld, Influence of different convection parameterisations in a GCM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5475-5493, 2006. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/5475of constituents: submodels ONLEM, OFFLEM, TNUDGE; A. Kerkweg, R. Sander, H. Tost, P. Jöckel, Technical note: Implementation of prescribed (OFFLEM), calculated (ONLEM), and pseudo-emissions (TNUDGE) of chemical species in the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3603-3609, 2006. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/3603
ENVIRO-HIRLAMHIRLAM TKE-l scheme. Modification of the CBR (Cuxart et. al, 2000, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 126, 1-30) scheme.STRACO (Soft TRAnsition COndensation) scheme.ISBA (Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere) surface analysis.ISBA surface analysis.ISBA surface analysis.HIRLAM radiation scheme, modified from Savijarvi (1990, j. Appl. Metor. 29, 437-447)STRACO (convective), Rasch-Kristjansson (stratiform), Kain-Fritsch (meso scale convective)
GEM-AQPrognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy [Benoıt et al., 1989]. Shallow convection is simulated using a method described by Mailhot (1994) and is treated as a special case of the turbulent planetary boundary layer to include the saturated case in the absence of precipitation.Kuo-type convective parameterization [Kuo, 1974; Mailhot et al., 1989]; Kain-Fritsch (1990, 1993)Force-restore [Deardorff, 1978; Benoıt et al., 1989], ISBA, CLASSThe infrared radiation scheme [Garand, 1983; Garand and Mailhot, 1990; Yu et al., 1997] includes the effects of water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and clouds. The solar radiation scheme follows the method described by Fouquart and Bonnel (1980).Gravity wave drag parameterization based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic variations [McFarlane, 1987; McLandress and McFarlane, 1993]
GMEdiagnostic, 2nd order scheme based on Mellor and Yamada (1974)mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989)based on Louis (1979) for the Prandtl layerfrom 7-layer prognostic soil model, solution of heat conduction equationfrom 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture.delta-2-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992).sub-grid scale orographic drag after Lott and Miller (1997)elaborate Kessler-style scheme incl. coud water and ice, rain water and snow (Doms and Schättler, 1997)
HirlamCBR (Cuxart Bougeault Lacarrere) plus changes in length scale formulation, order 1.5 TKE schemeSTRACO (Soft TRansition COndensation), adjusted Kuo schemeISBA (Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) scheme, tile scheme with 5 different tilesForce restore methodSimple and fast Savijarvi schemeparameterized through orographic roughness, no gravity wave drag parameterizationSTRACO
STOC_HadAM3Smith (1990), Q J R Meteorol Soc, 116: 435-460. Gregory and Rowntree (1990), Mon Weather Rev, 118: 1483-1506. Gregory and Allen (1991), Am Meteorol Soc, 122-123.Edwards and Slingo (1996), Q J R Meteorol Soc, 122: 689-719. Cusack et al. (1999), J Geophys Res, 104: 2051-2057.Palmer et al. (1986), Q J R Meteorol Soc, 112: 1001-1039. Milton and Wilson (1996) Mon Weather Rev 124: 2023-2045.Cloud: Smith (1990), Q J R Meteorol Soc, 116: 435-460. Precipitation: Senior and Mitchell (1993), J Clim, 6: 393-418.
UMNon-local, 1st order multi-regime PBL scheme (Locke et al)Mass flux with downdraughts and momentum transport, CAPE closure, based on Gregory and Rowntree. Not used at high resolution. MOSES II 9 tile, flux blended surface exchange. Includes urban tile.MOSES II subsurface soil temperature scheme (usually run with 4 layers), Penman-Monteith surface T with optional thermal canopy.MOSES II subsurface soil moisture scheme (usually run with 4 layers), includes soil moisture freezing. Penman-Monteith surface T with optional thermal canopy.Edwards-Slingo flexible multi-band two stream LW and SW.Orographic Roughness based on Grant and Mason. Gravity wave drag from Webster (not used at high resolution).Wilson and Ballard microphysics extended (Forbes) to include prognostic ice and snow, rain and graupel (each optionally prognostic or diagnostic). Smith diagnostic cloud scheme.
UM_CAM
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Boundary Conditions

surfacetoplateral inflowlateral outflow
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAMSurface analysisClimate filesu,v,t,q,psu,v,t,q,ps
GEM-AQland-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo
GMESST from analysis fixed during model integrationmodel top at 10hPanone (global model)none (global model)
Hirlamprescibed SST ECMWF boundary condition filesECMWF boundary condition files
STOC_HadAM3
UMNo slip or free slip in dynamics, no slip via PBL.w=0Davies relaxationDavies relaxation
UM_CAM
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Data Assimilation

nudging techniqueadjoint model3D-VAR4D-VAROIdetails
ECHMERITThe nudging scheme of ECHAM5 is applied to relax model meteorology towards ECMWF reanalysis data. But it can also be run without nudging.
EMACThe nudging scheme of ECHAM5 is applied to relax the model meteorology towards ECMWF (re-)analysis data. But it can also be applied without nudging.
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQCanadian Meteorological centre operation 4D-Var
GMEintermittent data assimilation every 3h on the icosaedral GME grid
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3No assimilation. Free-running GCM.
UMCurrently 4D VAR at lower resolution, 3DVAR + latent heat nudging and moisture nudging at high resolution. Highest resolution operational analysis 12 km every 3 h. 4 km under test.
UM_CAM
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Initialization

chemistry & transportmeteorology
ECHMERITTransport is calculated, using the flux-form semi-Lagrangian advection scheme of Lin & Rood, 1996, that is already implemented in ECHAM5.flux-form semi-Lagrangian advection scheme of Lin & Rood, 1996
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAMVariant of digital filtering
GEM-AQfields from previous runs
GMEincrementing digital filter initialisation (IDFI) after Lynch (1997) every 6h with averaging of normal modes in order to remove noise
HirlamLaunching DFI a 2-h forward forecast is filtered with DFI and used as starting point for the forecast. The forecast therefore actually starts at analysis time +1h
STOC_HadAM3Chemical species initialised with climatological values.Initial conditions taken from output of a long steady-state run of same climate model.
UM3D-VAR: Nudging of analysis increments, weak balance constraint or digital filter all available. First used most generally.
UM_CAM
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Nesting

one waytwo wayothervariables nestednesting onlinenesting offlinedata exchange by arraydata exchange by filetime step for data exchangeexplain method
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAMC & T model online coupled in limited area forecast model, i.e possibility of data exchange every time step of met. model.
GEM-AQspecified by the user
GME
Hirlam6h
STOC_HadAM3
UMFully flexible. Usually 5-15 min at 1km, 1-3h at 12 km.Davies relaxation.
UM_CAM
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Coordinate System

HorizontalVertical
cartesianLambert conformallatitude / longituderotated lat. / long.z coordinatesurface fitted gridpressurecoordinatesigma coordinateremarks
ECHMERIT
EMACvertical: hybrid pressure grid horizontal: quadratic Gaussian grid corresponding to triangular spectral truncation
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQsigma-pressure hybrid vertical coordinate
GMEvertical coordinates: hybrid pressure (at top of atmos.) and sigma system. horizontal coordinates: regular icosahedral-hexagonal grid of 20 equilateral triangles to allow almost uniform discretisation on sphere following Baumgardner (1983)
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UMVertical coordinate is hybrid height based - terrain following near surface, flat at top. Gal-Chen and SLEVE can be implemented, but we use a slightly different formulation. Charney-Philips staggering in vertical to avoid compuation modes and improve balance.
UM_CAM
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Numeric I: Grid

Arakawa AArakawa BArakawa CArakawa DArakawa Euniform gridnonuniform gridEuler
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GME
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UM
UM_CAM
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Numeric II: Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsscalar quantitiesadditional information
ECHMERIT(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)(Roeckner et al.,2003)
EMACspectralphysics and chemistry in quadratic Gaussian grid corresponding to the spectral triangular truncation
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GMEon icosahedral grid following Baumgardner (1983)on icosahedral grid following Baumgardner (1983)
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UMSemi-Lagrangian, non-interpolating in vertical. Eulerian continuity at present.Semi-Lagrangian with monotone option and mass correction.non-uniform horizontal grid under test.
UM_CAM
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Numeric III: Time Integration

explicitsplit-explicitsemi-implicitother
ECHMERIT
EMACleap-frog with filter
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GMEsemi-Lagrange for prognostic humidity variables and O3, split semi-implicit for Helmholtz equations
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UM
UM_CAM
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Validation & evaluation - Overview

analytic solutionsevaluated reference datasetmodel intercomparisonadditional validation & evaluation efforts
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GME
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UM
UM_CAM
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Validation & evaluation - Application in Comparison Projects

AQMEIIList experiments (AQMEII)Cost728List experiments (COST728)HTAPList experiments (HTAP)MEGAPOLIList experiments (MEGAPOLI)
ECHMERIT
EMAC
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GME
Hirlam
STOC_HadAM3
UM
UM_CAM
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