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Summary tables for microscale meteorology models

Prognostic equations and calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ADREA
Chensiconcentrations Cn for passive scalar speciesTraffic parameters Solar heating for wall and ground
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UEConcentrations for passive scalarTraffic induced turbulenceUrban vegetation
MERCUREconcentration in pollutants, including heavy gaz
MIMOair motion near complex building structuresconcentrations
MITRASconcentrations
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Diagnostically calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCURE
MIMO
MITRAS
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Model type

2D3Dmeteorologychemistry & transport
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCURE
MIMO
MITRAS
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Approximations

Boussinesqanelastichydrostaticflat earthremarks
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCUREtakes into account topography but not earth curvature
MIMONon-hydrostatic
MITRAS
Meso-NHThe model is based upon the Lipps and Hemler anelastic system.
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Parametrizations

turbulence schemedeep convectionsurface exchangesurface temperaturesurface humidityradiationunresolved orographic dragclouds / rainremarks
ADREAzero, one (k-l, k-ζ) or two-equations (k-ε) schemeIn the surface heat budget equation, the net radiative flux balances the fluxes of sensible, latent and soil heat.The infrared radiation follows Pielke (1984). The net longwave irradiance is based on Stephens (1984).constant drop model (Rogers, 1989)
Chensistandard k - ε Chen & Kim modelDiagnostic parametersDiagnostic parametersDiagnostic parameters
GEM-AQPrognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy [Benoıt et al., 1989]. Shallow convection is simulated using a method described by Mailhot (1994) and is treated as a special case of the turbulent planetary boundary layer to include the saturated case in the absence of precipitation.Kuo-type convective parameterization [Kuo, 1974; Mailhot et al., 1989]; Kain-Fritsch (1990, 1993)Force-restore [Deardorff, 1978; Benoıt et al., 1989], ISBA, CLASSThe infrared radiation scheme [Garand, 1983; Garand and Mailhot, 1990; Yu et al., 1997] includes the effects of water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and clouds. The solar radiation scheme follows the method described by Fouquart and Bonnel (1980).Gravity wave drag parameterization based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic variations [McFarlane, 1987; McLandress and McFarlane, 1993]
LESNICdynamic mixed Smagorinsky; dynamic Smagorinsky; static Smagorinsky; static E-Kolmogorov; no scheme (DNS mode)not relevantfluxes prescribed or recovered from log-law; MO-law by choiceprescribed or recovered from fluxesprescribed or recovered from fluxesthermal radiation by Stefan-Boltzmann accountnot relevantnot included yet
M-SYSfirst order closure, different schemes for different scales and within one scale (TKE-l, TKE-epsilon, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..)resolved with km grid and higher resolution; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesConstant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregationEnergy budget (force restore method)humidity budget (force restore method)Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesnot consideredKessler-type
M2UEstandard k - ε model, Craft's NLEVM modelChieng-Launder wall functions
MERCUREdifferent levels can be used : E-eps (standard and Duynkerke), E-L (Bougeault-Lacarrere), L (Louis, 1979) explicit resolutionMonin-Obukhov similarity and Louis (1982)-ECMWF formulationForce-resore method inspired by Deardorff (1978)idem (two layers model)solar : derived from Lacis-Hansen (1974), including simulated cloud and cloudy fraction and aerosol evolutions infra-red : based on emissivity approximation Musson-Genon (1987) for both schemes, gaseous absorbent are : H2O and its dimeres, O3, CO2 and aerosolsexplicitly resolvedtwo moment semi-spectral warm microphysical scheme, including interaction with turbulent scheme (Bouzereau, 2004)
MIMOOptionally one- and two-equation schemes linear and non-linear turbulence models
MITRASSeveral schemes (Prandtl-Kolmogoroc-Closure, TKE-Epsilon model, mixing length approach..)Constant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over waterEnergy budget (force restore method)humidity budget (force restore method)Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; shading by mountainsKessler-type
Meso-NH1.5 order closure scheme with different mixing lengths Cuxart, J., Bougeault, Ph. and Redelsperger, J.L., 2000: A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1-30.Kain-Fritsch-Bechtold scheme Bechtold, P., E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart and E. Richard, 2001: A Mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869-886.Externalized surface model - For vegetation, ISBA scheme : Noilhan, J. and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 536-549. - For urban area, TEB scheme : Masson V. 2000, A physically based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models, Bound. Layer Meteor., 94, 357-397. - For ocean : Charnock formulation - No lake schemeComputed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fieldsComputed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fieldsECMWF radiation scheme for LW (RRTM) and SW. Morcrette, J.-J., 1991: Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European center for medium range weather forecasts forecasting system. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9121-9132. NoDifferent microphysical schemes with 1 or 2 moments The most used is a mixed 1-moment scheme with 5 or 6 prognostic species Pinty, J.-P. and P. Jabouille, 1998: A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale non-hydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations. Proc. Conf. of Cloud Physics, Everett, WA, USA, Amer. Meteor. soc., Aug. 1999, 217 - 220.
RCG
STAR-CDEddy viscosity models (k-ε models, k-ω models, Spalart-Allmaras model, k-l model) Reynolds Stress models Large Eddy Simulation models
VADISk-e turbulence scheme. This scheme corresponds to a one-and-a-half order closure that retains the prognostic equations for the zero-order statistics such as mean wind, temperature, humidity and the variances of the referred variables. The TKE equation is used in place of the velocity variance equations. A highly-parameterized prognostic equation for the dissipation rate is included in addition to the equation for TKE. Wall functions.User defined.
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Boundary Conditions

surfacetoplateral inflowlateral outflow
ADREAThe concept of surface layer func-tions is adopted to avoid an excessive number of meshes near the ground due to very steep parameter gradients, occurring at the region.
ChensiDirichlet or law-of-the-wall for turbulent variables and mean flow and temperature fieldOptions: Neumann, Laplace, Symmetry Dirichlet (inflow/outflow), periodicOptions: Neumann, Laplace, Symmetry Dirichlet (inflow/outflow), periodicOptions: Neumann, Laplace, Symmetry Dirichlet (inflow/outflow), periodic
GEM-AQland-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo
LESNICfluxes or variables at the surfacefluxes or variables at the topperiodic or enforced periodicperiodic or enforced periodic
M-SYSSeveral options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing dataTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary conditionTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition
M2UEwall functions for turbulent variables and mean flowOptions: Neumann, Dirichlet, periodicOptions: Neumann, Dirichlet, periodicOptions: Neumann, Dirichlet, periodic
MERCUREsurface exchange parameterization (two layer model; cf. above)- prescribed large scale flow - optional absorbing layer- standard Dirichlet - optional absorbing layer- standard Neuman - optional absorbing layer
MIMOLaw of the wallDirichlet boundary conditions are imposed for all main quantities except for pressure, which is of Neumann typeAt lateral inflow Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed for all main quantities except for pressure, which is of Neumann type.Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions
MITRASSeveral options (constant values, energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, absorbing layersmodified radiation boundary condition or fixed boundary normal wind, all other: zero gradient; comparison with wind tunnel data: initial inflow values kept at input pointsmodified radiation boundary condition for wind, all aother variables: zero gradient
Meso-NHGiven by the externalized surface modelRigid For the coarser model, open boundary conditions with radiative properties from the LS coupling model. For the inner models, interpolation from the coarser grid.Radiative open boundary conditions
RCG
STAR-CDNo-slip prescriptions for velocity apply. In the case of turbulent flow calculations with particular turbulence models, a special mathematical representation of the near-wall flow is employed. This consists of algebraic ‘wall functions’, hybrid wall functions, two-layer models or low Reynolds number models.Symmetry plane: the normal velocity and normal gradients of all other variables are zero.Inlet(Prescribed Flow): the inflow conditions are imposed by the user (velocities, turbulence parameters).Outlet: The gradients of all variables along the flow direction at the outflow surface are taken to be zero and the exit mass flow is fixed from overall continuity considerations.
VADISRoughness parameter, temperature (wall functions used)SymmetryWind and temperature profiles, direct input or developed over unobstructed field till convergenceFree, except for mass balance kept correct
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Data Assimilation

nudging techniqueadjoint model3D-VAR4D-VAROIdetails
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQCanadian Meteorological centre operation 4D-Var
LESNICnudging seems to be working well but more tests are needed still
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCUREnudging also used for 'Davies' type lateral boundary conditions
MIMO
MITRAS
Meso-NHNo
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Initialization

chemistry & transportmeteorology
ADREAOne-dimensional wind speed and temperature profiles are provided to be used as initial and boundary conditions. Models are also available for providing the meteorological input data. These are the code FILMAKER which provides meteorological three-dimensional fields from sparse observations and the code ADREA-diagn, a diagnostic meteorological model which provides mass-conserving three-dimensional wind fields
ChensiRead initialization files (ascii) or use default constant valuesRead initialization files (ascii) or use default analytical values
GEM-AQfields from previous runs
LESNICstarts from 1D profiles + 3D perturbations of small amplitude
M-SYSinitialised with measured profiles, precalculation of first day to initialise 3d fields, second day and later to be evaluatedDynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with 1D pre-processors based on METRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain and constant large nudging, which decreases during the initialisation phase, restart uses METRAS results to continue
M2UEinitialized with quasi empirical or measured profiles initialized with quasi empirical or measured profiles
MERCURE- from radio sounding - interpolation from large scale model fields - use of an objective analysis pre-processing for field campaign (MINERVE code)
MIMOInitialisation is performed using either prognostic or diagnostic methods. In the former case the model is coupled with the mesoscale model MEMO. In the latter case the initial wind field is calculated from measured data or by the power law. Temperature is initialised diagnostically on the basis of measured profiles or by a constant gradient. Initialisation of the pressure follows the thermal stratification according to the hydrostatic equation.
MITRASzero concentrations; emission after some initalization pahse (~100 iteration steps)Dynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with pre-processors based on MITRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain, restart uses MITRAS results to continue
Meso-NHMOCAGE or MOZARTECMWF, ARPEGE, ALADIN for real cases Possibility of ideal cases.
RCG
STAR-CD
VADISThe wind field may be (optionally) developed over the unobstructed domain till convergence
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Nesting

one waytwo wayothervariables nestednesting onlinenesting offlinedata exchange by arraydata exchange by filetime step for data exchangeexplain method
ADREAuser defined (usually 1 hour)updating of boundary conditions
Chensi
GEM-AQspecified by the user
LESNIC
M-SYSdepends on resolutionDavies scheme
M2UE
MERCUREevery- unstructured mesh allow for solving directly on the nested domains - only the largest nesting is one way
MIMOCoupled to MEMO model using extended radiation conditions or relaxation scheme
MITRAS
Meso-NHThe only constraint is that the ratio must be an integer. The exchange between both models occurs at the time step of the father model.Clark and Farley nesting technics Stein J., E. Richard, J.P. Lafore, J.P. Pinty, N. Asencio and S. Cosma, 2000: High -resolution non-hydrostatic simulations of flash-flood episodes with grid-nesting and ice-phase parametrization. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 72, 101-110
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Coordinate System

HorizontalVertical
cartesianLambert conformallatitude / longituderotated lat. / long.z coordinatesurface fitted gridpressurecoordinatesigma coordinateremarks
ADREA
ChensiNon uniform grid
GEM-AQsigma-pressure hybrid vertical coordinate
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCUREunstructured mesh
MIMOCell height: 1 - 100 m (varying with height), total height: up to about 1000 m.
MITRASfor buildings blocking approach
Meso-NHFor the vertical, Gal-Chen-Somerville coordinate. For the horizontal, different conformal projections (Polar stereographic, Lambert, Mercator)
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Numeric I: Grid

Arakawa AArakawa BArakawa CArakawa DArakawa Euniform gridnonuniform gridEuler
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCURE
MIMO
MITRAS
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Numeric II: Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsscalar quantitiesadditional information
ADREAFor the numerical solution, the SIMPLER/ADREA algorithm is used, based on the SIMPLER algorithm given in Patankar, (1980). The mixture mass conservation equation is turned to a full pressure (Poisson) including the transient term. Pressure correc-tion is avoided. Under-relaxation factors are also avoided.
ChensiFinite-difference / finite volume Explicit in time Implicit for velocity-pressure coupling
GEM-AQ
LESNICcentral difference 2nd order by Morinishi et al. (1999) in skew symmetric formcentral difference 2nd order by Morinishi et al. (1999) in divergence formDirect Furier pressure solver + pressure correction in a prognostic equation
M-SYScentered differences or (W)ENOupstream or (W)ENOvalues interpolated to other grid points by linear or higher order interpolation
M2UEfinite volume method, 2nd order MLU (Monotone Linear-Upwind) van Leer scheme for advection and 2nd order central difference scheme for diffusionfinite volume, 2nd order MLU (Monotone Linear-Upwind) van Leer scheme for advection and 2nd order central difference scheme for diffusionequations are solved by the Buleev's explicit method of incomplete factorization
MERCUREfinite volume, cell centeredidempossibility to use different cell elements (tetrahedral, hexahedral...)
MIMOThe conservation equations for mass, momentum are solved.The conservation equations for scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved.Fast elliptic solver, which is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction.
MITRASAdams-Bashforth and centred in space for advection and diffusion (alternative: Crank Nicolson schme for diffusion); pressure implicit in time and centred; all other forward in time and centeredforward in time and upstream in space or 2nd/3rd order Weno and Eno schemespoisson equation solved with iterative schemes (IGCG, or multigrid, or BigStep)
Meso-NH2nd order or 4th centred advection scheme2nd order or 4th positive definite advection scheme (PPM)
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Numeric III: Time Integration

explicitsplit-explicitsemi-implicitother
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYSvertical dffusion semi-implicit, all aother explicit first and second order
M2UEfully implicit
MERCURE
MIMOTime step: 0.1 - 1 second
MITRAS
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Validation & evaluation - Overview

analytic solutionsevaluated reference datasetmodel intercomparisonadditional validation & evaluation efforts
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCURE
MIMO
MITRAS
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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Validation & evaluation - Application in Comparison Projects

AQMEIIList experiments (AQMEII)Cost728List experiments (COST728)HTAPList experiments (HTAP)MEGAPOLIList experiments (MEGAPOLI)
ADREA
Chensi
GEM-AQ
LESNIC
M-SYS
M2UE
MERCURE
MIMO
MITRAS
Meso-NH
RCG
STAR-CD
VADIS
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