# Summary tables for microscale meteorology models

**Scale**:*Microscale*| Mesoscale | Macroscale**Type**:*Meteorology*| Chemisty & Transport | Meteorology & Chemistry & Transport

# Prognostic equations and calculated meteorological variables

u | v | w | ζ | pv | T | θ | θ_{l} | p | Gph | ρ | q_{v} | q_{t} | q_{lc} | q_{f} | q_{sc} | q_{lr} | q_{sh} | q_{sg} | q_{ss} | N | E | ε | K | z_{i} | other variables i | other variables ii | other variables iii | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Chensi | concentrations Cn for passive scalar species | Traffic parameters | Solar heating for wall and ground | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

GEM-AQ | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

LESNIC | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

M-SYS | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

M2UE | Concentrations for passive scalar | Traffic induced turbulence | Urban vegetation | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

MERCURE | concentration in pollutants, including heavy gaz | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||

MIMO | air motion near complex building structures | concentrations | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||

MITRAS | concentrations | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Meso-NH | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

RCG | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

STAR-CD | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

VADIS |

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# Diagnostically calculated meteorological variables

u | v | w | ζ | pv | T | θ | θ_{l} | p | Gph | ρ | q_{v} | q_{t} | q_{lc} | q_{f} | q_{sc} | q_{lr} | q_{sh} | q_{sg} | q_{ss} | N | E | ε | K | z_{i} | other variables i | other variables ii | other variables iii | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Chensi | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

GEM-AQ | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

LESNIC | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

M-SYS | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

M2UE | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

MERCURE | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

MIMO | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

MITRAS | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Meso-NH | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

RCG | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

STAR-CD | ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

VADIS |

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# Model type

# Approximations

Boussinesq | anelastic | hydrostatic | flat earth | remarks | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | |||||

Chensi | |||||

GEM-AQ | |||||

LESNIC | |||||

M-SYS | |||||

M2UE | |||||

MERCURE | takes into account topography but not earth curvature | ||||

MIMO | Non-hydrostatic | ||||

MITRAS | |||||

Meso-NH | The model is based upon the Lipps and Hemler anelastic system. | ||||

RCG | |||||

STAR-CD | |||||

VADIS |

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# Parametrizations

turbulence scheme | deep convection | surface exchange | surface temperature | surface humidity | radiation | unresolved orographic drag | clouds / rain | remarks | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | zero, one (k-l, k-ζ) or two-equations (k-ε) scheme | In the surface heat budget equation, the net radiative flux balances the fluxes of sensible, latent and soil heat. | The infrared radiation follows Pielke (1984). The net longwave irradiance is based on Stephens (1984). | constant drop model (Rogers, 1989) | |||||

Chensi | standard k - ε Chen & Kim model | Diagnostic parameters | Diagnostic parameters | Diagnostic parameters | |||||

GEM-AQ | Prognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy [Benoıt et al., 1989]. Shallow convection is simulated using a method described by Mailhot (1994) and is treated as a special case of the turbulent planetary boundary layer to include the saturated case in the absence of precipitation. | Kuo-type convective parameterization [Kuo, 1974; Mailhot et al., 1989]; Kain-Fritsch (1990, 1993) | Force-restore [Deardorff, 1978; Benoıt et al., 1989], ISBA, CLASS | The infrared radiation scheme [Garand, 1983; Garand and Mailhot, 1990; Yu et al., 1997] includes the effects of water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and clouds. The solar radiation scheme follows the method described by Fouquart and Bonnel (1980). | Gravity wave drag parameterization based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic variations [McFarlane, 1987; McLandress and McFarlane, 1993] | ||||

LESNIC | dynamic mixed Smagorinsky; dynamic Smagorinsky; static Smagorinsky; static E-Kolmogorov; no scheme (DNS mode) | not relevant | fluxes prescribed or recovered from log-law; MO-law by choice | prescribed or recovered from fluxes | prescribed or recovered from fluxes | thermal radiation by Stefan-Boltzmann account | not relevant | not included yet | |

M-SYS | first order closure, different schemes for different scales and within one scale (TKE-l, TKE-epsilon, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..) | resolved with km grid and higher resolution; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes | Constant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregation | Energy budget (force restore method) | humidity budget (force restore method) | Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes | not considered | Kessler-type | |

M2UE | standard k - ε model, Craft's NLEVM model | Chieng-Launder wall functions | |||||||

MERCURE | different levels can be used : E-eps (standard and Duynkerke), E-L (Bougeault-Lacarrere), L (Louis, 1979) | explicit resolution | Monin-Obukhov similarity and Louis (1982)-ECMWF formulation | Force-resore method inspired by Deardorff (1978) | idem (two layers model) | solar : derived from Lacis-Hansen (1974), including simulated cloud and cloudy fraction and aerosol evolutions infra-red : based on emissivity approximation Musson-Genon (1987) for both schemes, gaseous absorbent are : H2O and its dimeres, O3, CO2 and aerosols | explicitly resolved | two moment semi-spectral warm microphysical scheme, including interaction with turbulent scheme (Bouzereau, 2004) | |

MIMO | Optionally one- and two-equation schemes linear and non-linear turbulence models | ||||||||

MITRAS | Several schemes (Prandtl-Kolmogoroc-Closure, TKE-Epsilon model, mixing length approach..) | Constant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water | Energy budget (force restore method) | humidity budget (force restore method) | Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; shading by mountains | Kessler-type | |||

Meso-NH | 1.5 order closure scheme with different mixing lengths Cuxart, J., Bougeault, Ph. and Redelsperger, J.L., 2000: A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1-30. | Kain-Fritsch-Bechtold scheme Bechtold, P., E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart and E. Richard, 2001: A Mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869-886. | Externalized surface model - For vegetation, ISBA scheme : Noilhan, J. and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 536-549. - For urban area, TEB scheme : Masson V. 2000, A physically based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models, Bound. Layer Meteor., 94, 357-397. - For ocean : Charnock formulation - No lake scheme | Computed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fields | Computed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fields | ECMWF radiation scheme for LW (RRTM) and SW. Morcrette, J.-J., 1991: Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European center for medium range weather forecasts forecasting system. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9121-9132. | No | Different microphysical schemes with 1 or 2 moments The most used is a mixed 1-moment scheme with 5 or 6 prognostic species Pinty, J.-P. and P. Jabouille, 1998: A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale non-hydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations. Proc. Conf. of Cloud Physics, Everett, WA, USA, Amer. Meteor. soc., Aug. 1999, 217 - 220. | |

RCG | |||||||||

STAR-CD | Eddy viscosity models (k-ε models, k-ω models, Spalart-Allmaras model, k-l model) Reynolds Stress models Large Eddy Simulation models | ||||||||

VADIS | k-e turbulence scheme. This scheme corresponds to a one-and-a-half order closure that retains the prognostic equations for the zero-order statistics such as mean wind, temperature, humidity and the variances of the referred variables. The TKE equation is used in place of the velocity variance equations. A highly-parameterized prognostic equation for the dissipation rate is included in addition to the equation for TKE. | Wall functions. | User defined. |

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# Boundary Conditions

surface | top | lateral inflow | lateral outflow | |
---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | The concept of surface layer func-tions is adopted to avoid an excessive number of meshes near the ground due to very steep parameter gradients, occurring at the region. | |||

Chensi | Dirichlet or law-of-the-wall for turbulent variables and mean flow and temperature field | Options: Neumann, Laplace, Symmetry Dirichlet (inflow/outflow), periodic | Options: Neumann, Laplace, Symmetry Dirichlet (inflow/outflow), periodic | Options: Neumann, Laplace, Symmetry Dirichlet (inflow/outflow), periodic |

GEM-AQ | land-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo | |||

LESNIC | fluxes or variables at the surface | fluxes or variables at the top | periodic or enforced periodic | periodic or enforced periodic |

M-SYS | Several options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes) | rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing data | Towards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition | Towards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition |

M2UE | wall functions for turbulent variables and mean flow | Options: Neumann, Dirichlet, periodic | Options: Neumann, Dirichlet, periodic | Options: Neumann, Dirichlet, periodic |

MERCURE | surface exchange parameterization (two layer model; cf. above) | - prescribed large scale flow - optional absorbing layer | - standard Dirichlet - optional absorbing layer | - standard Neuman - optional absorbing layer |

MIMO | Law of the wall | Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed for all main quantities except for pressure, which is of Neumann type | At lateral inflow Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed for all main quantities except for pressure, which is of Neumann type. | Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions |

MITRAS | Several options (constant values, energy budgets, constant fluxes) | rigid lid, absorbing layers | modified radiation boundary condition or fixed boundary normal wind, all other: zero gradient; comparison with wind tunnel data: initial inflow values kept at input points | modified radiation boundary condition for wind, all aother variables: zero gradient |

Meso-NH | Given by the externalized surface model | Rigid | For the coarser model, open boundary conditions with radiative properties from the LS coupling model. For the inner models, interpolation from the coarser grid. | Radiative open boundary conditions |

RCG | ||||

STAR-CD | No-slip prescriptions for velocity apply. In the case of turbulent flow calculations with particular turbulence models, a special mathematical representation of the near-wall flow is employed. This consists of algebraic ‘wall functions’, hybrid wall functions, two-layer models or low Reynolds number models. | Symmetry plane: the normal velocity and normal gradients of all other variables are zero. | Inlet(Prescribed Flow): the inflow conditions are imposed by the user (velocities, turbulence parameters). | Outlet: The gradients of all variables along the flow direction at the outflow surface are taken to be zero and the exit mass flow is fixed from overall continuity considerations. |

VADIS | Roughness parameter, temperature (wall functions used) | Symmetry | Wind and temperature profiles, direct input or developed over unobstructed field till convergence | Free, except for mass balance kept correct |

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# Data Assimilation

nudging technique | adjoint model | 3D-VAR | 4D-VAR | OI | details | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | ||||||

Chensi | ||||||

GEM-AQ | Canadian Meteorological centre operation 4D-Var | |||||

LESNIC | nudging seems to be working well but more tests are needed still | |||||

M-SYS | ||||||

M2UE | ||||||

MERCURE | nudging also used for 'Davies' type lateral boundary conditions | |||||

MIMO | ||||||

MITRAS | ||||||

Meso-NH | No | |||||

RCG | ||||||

STAR-CD | ||||||

VADIS |

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# Initialization

chemistry & transport | meteorology | |
---|---|---|

ADREA | One-dimensional wind speed and temperature profiles are provided to be used as initial and boundary conditions. Models are also available for providing the meteorological input data. These are the code FILMAKER which provides meteorological three-dimensional fields from sparse observations and the code ADREA-diagn, a diagnostic meteorological model which provides mass-conserving three-dimensional wind fields | |

Chensi | Read initialization files (ascii) or use default constant values | Read initialization files (ascii) or use default analytical values |

GEM-AQ | fields from previous runs | |

LESNIC | starts from 1D profiles + 3D perturbations of small amplitude | |

M-SYS | initialised with measured profiles, precalculation of first day to initialise 3d fields, second day and later to be evaluated | Dynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with 1D pre-processors based on METRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain and constant large nudging, which decreases during the initialisation phase, restart uses METRAS results to continue |

M2UE | initialized with quasi empirical or measured profiles | initialized with quasi empirical or measured profiles |

MERCURE | - from radio sounding - interpolation from large scale model fields - use of an objective analysis pre-processing for field campaign (MINERVE code) | |

MIMO | Initialisation is performed using either prognostic or diagnostic methods. In the former case the model is coupled with the mesoscale model MEMO. In the latter case the initial wind field is calculated from measured data or by the power law. Temperature is initialised diagnostically on the basis of measured profiles or by a constant gradient. Initialisation of the pressure follows the thermal stratification according to the hydrostatic equation. | |

MITRAS | zero concentrations; emission after some initalization pahse (~100 iteration steps) | Dynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with pre-processors based on MITRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain, restart uses MITRAS results to continue |

Meso-NH | MOCAGE or MOZART | ECMWF, ARPEGE, ALADIN for real cases Possibility of ideal cases. |

RCG | ||

STAR-CD | ||

VADIS | The wind field may be (optionally) developed over the unobstructed domain till convergence |

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# Nesting

one way | two way | other | variables nested | nesting online | nesting offline | data exchange by array | data exchange by file | time step for data exchange | explain method | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | user defined (usually 1 hour) | updating of boundary conditions | ||||||||

Chensi | ||||||||||

GEM-AQ | specified by the user | |||||||||

LESNIC | ||||||||||

M-SYS | depends on resolution | Davies scheme | ||||||||

M2UE | ||||||||||

MERCURE | every | - unstructured mesh allow for solving directly on the nested domains - only the largest nesting is one way | ||||||||

MIMO | Coupled to MEMO model using extended radiation conditions or relaxation scheme | |||||||||

MITRAS | ||||||||||

Meso-NH | The only constraint is that the ratio must be an integer. The exchange between both models occurs at the time step of the father model. | Clark and Farley nesting technics Stein J., E. Richard, J.P. Lafore, J.P. Pinty, N. Asencio and S. Cosma, 2000: High -resolution non-hydrostatic simulations of flash-flood episodes with grid-nesting and ice-phase parametrization. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 72, 101-110 | ||||||||

RCG | ||||||||||

STAR-CD | ||||||||||

VADIS |

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# Coordinate System

Horizontal | Vertical | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

cartesian | Lambert conformal | latitude / longitude | rotated lat. / long. | z coordinate | surface fitted grid | pressurecoordinate | sigma coordinate | remarks | |

ADREA | |||||||||

Chensi | Non uniform grid | ||||||||

GEM-AQ | sigma-pressure hybrid vertical coordinate | ||||||||

LESNIC | |||||||||

M-SYS | |||||||||

M2UE | |||||||||

MERCURE | unstructured mesh | ||||||||

MIMO | Cell height: 1 - 100 m (varying with height), total height: up to about 1000 m. | ||||||||

MITRAS | for buildings blocking approach | ||||||||

Meso-NH | For the vertical, Gal-Chen-Somerville coordinate. For the horizontal, different conformal projections (Polar stereographic, Lambert, Mercator) | ||||||||

RCG | |||||||||

STAR-CD | |||||||||

VADIS |

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# Numeric I: Grid

# Numeric II: Spatial discretisation

momentum equations | scalar quantities | additional information | |
---|---|---|---|

ADREA | For the numerical solution, the SIMPLER/ADREA algorithm is used, based on the SIMPLER algorithm given in Patankar, (1980). The mixture mass conservation equation is turned to a full pressure (Poisson) including the transient term. Pressure correc-tion is avoided. Under-relaxation factors are also avoided. | ||

Chensi | Finite-difference / finite volume Explicit in time Implicit for velocity-pressure coupling | ||

GEM-AQ | |||

LESNIC | central difference 2nd order by Morinishi et al. (1999) in skew symmetric form | central difference 2nd order by Morinishi et al. (1999) in divergence form | Direct Furier pressure solver + pressure correction in a prognostic equation |

M-SYS | centered differences or (W)ENO | upstream or (W)ENO | values interpolated to other grid points by linear or higher order interpolation |

M2UE | finite volume method, 2nd order MLU (Monotone Linear-Upwind) van Leer scheme for advection and 2nd order central difference scheme for diffusion | finite volume, 2nd order MLU (Monotone Linear-Upwind) van Leer scheme for advection and 2nd order central difference scheme for diffusion | equations are solved by the Buleev's explicit method of incomplete factorization |

MERCURE | finite volume, cell centered | idem | possibility to use different cell elements (tetrahedral, hexahedral...) |

MIMO | The conservation equations for mass, momentum are solved. | The conservation equations for scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved. | Fast elliptic solver, which is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction. |

MITRAS | Adams-Bashforth and centred in space for advection and diffusion (alternative: Crank Nicolson schme for diffusion); pressure implicit in time and centred; all other forward in time and centered | forward in time and upstream in space or 2nd/3rd order Weno and Eno schemes | poisson equation solved with iterative schemes (IGCG, or multigrid, or BigStep) |

Meso-NH | 2nd order or 4th centred advection scheme | 2nd order or 4th positive definite advection scheme (PPM) | |

RCG | |||

STAR-CD | |||

VADIS |

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# Numeric III: Time Integration

explicit | split-explicit | semi-implicit | other | |
---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | ||||

Chensi | ||||

GEM-AQ | ||||

LESNIC | ||||

M-SYS | vertical dffusion semi-implicit, all aother explicit first and second order | |||

M2UE | fully implicit | |||

MERCURE | ||||

MIMO | Time step: 0.1 - 1 second | |||

MITRAS | ||||

Meso-NH | ||||

RCG | ||||

STAR-CD | ||||

VADIS |

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# Validation & evaluation - Overview

# Validation & evaluation - Application in Comparison Projects

AQMEII | List experiments (AQMEII) | Cost728 | List experiments (COST728) | HTAP | List experiments (HTAP) | MEGAPOLI | List experiments (MEGAPOLI) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | ||||||||

Chensi | ||||||||

GEM-AQ | ||||||||

LESNIC | ||||||||

M-SYS | ||||||||

M2UE | ||||||||

MERCURE | ||||||||

MIMO | ||||||||

MITRAS | ||||||||

Meso-NH | ||||||||

RCG | ||||||||

STAR-CD | ||||||||

VADIS |

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