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Summary tables for mesoscale meteorology & chemistry & transport models

Prognostic equations and calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCAT
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)Turbulence data, deposition, cloudsOptionally concentrations of inert pollutantsGridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles.
MERCUREconcentration in pollutants, including heavy gaz
Meso-NH
RCG
TAPM
WRF/ChemDependent on dynamic core and choice of physicscan be run dry or with second moment microphysicsMay also produce probabilistic non-resolved convective parameterization output
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Diagnostically calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCAT
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCURE
Meso-NH
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chem
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Model type

Approximations

Boussinesqanelastichydrostaticflat earthremarks
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFFCALMET is a diagnostic 3-dimensional meteorological model; it iterpolate meteorological data (surface and radiosoundins)also using kinematic effects, slope flow, blocking effects. It includes divergency minimization procedure and micrometeorological model for overland and overwater boundary layers. In Krakow we replace radiosoundings by data from ALADIN/PL.
CALMET/CAMxCALMET is a diagnostic model; it interpolates the meteorological data (surface and radiosoundings) also using kinematic effects, slope flows and blocking effects. Vertical velocity is derived from a divergence minimization scheme.
COSMO-MUSCATNon-hydrostatic, compressible, surface heterogeneity (orography, land use)
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYS
MC2-AQFully compressible, non hydrostatic Euler equations [Tanguay et al. 1990; Benoit et al. 1997}
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCUREtakes into account topography but not earth curvature
Meso-NHThe model is based upon the Lipps and Hemler anelastic system.
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chemfully compressible equations
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Parametrizations

turbulence schemedeep convectionsurface exchangesurface temperaturesurface humidityradiationunresolved orographic dragclouds / rainremarks
ADREAzero, one (k-l, k-ζ) or two-equations (k-ε) schemeIn the surface heat budget equation, the net radiative flux balances the fluxes of sensible, latent and soil heat.The infrared radiation follows Pielke (1984). The net longwave irradiance is based on Stephens (1984).constant drop model (Rogers, 1989)
BOLCHEME-lKain-Frisch, 1990. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2784-2802.Heat and specific humidity fluxes are computed with iterative procedure based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Soil model (4 layers)Soil model (4 layers)Infrared and solar, interacting with clouds (Ritter and Geleyn, 1992, Mon. Wea. Rev. 120 (2), 303-325) + Morcrette J. J.roughness proportional to unresolved orographic varianceMicro-physical processes included
CALMET/CALPUFFbased on similarity theory or Parsquill-Gifford-Turner class Overland Holtslag and van Ulden (1983)during unstable conditions and Weil and Brower (1983)based on Venkatram (1980)during stable conditionsinterpolationHoltslag and van Ulden (1983)
CALMET/CAMxHolstag and van Ulden (1983), Venkatram (1980) for momentum flux in stable conditionsinterpolation.Holstag and Van Ulden (1983)
COSMO-MUSCATBased on prognostic turbulent kinetic energy and mixing length; considering e.g. vertical wind shear and thermal stabilityTiedtke mass-flux scheme with equilibrium closureDrag-law formulation with Louis transfer coefficients; considering resistances in the turbulent, viscous, and surface sublayersEnergy budget considering vertical heat fluxes in atmosphere and soil as well as melting and freezing (snow, ice, water) on surface; with prognostic multi-layer soil modelHumidity budget considering vertical water fluxes, horizontal runoff, and plant transpiration in atmosphere and soil; with prognostic multi-layer soil modelTwo-stream transfer equations for 8 spectral intervals; shading by cloudsClouds: Kessler bulk scheme with saturation adjustment. -- Rain: autoconversion of cloud water, accretion of cloud water by rain drops, evaporation, and sedimentation.
ENVIRO-HIRLAMHIRLAM TKE-l scheme. Modification of the CBR (Cuxart et. al, 2000, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 126, 1-30) scheme.STRACO (Soft TRAnsition COndensation) scheme.ISBA (Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere) surface analysis.ISBA surface analysis.ISBA surface analysis.HIRLAM radiation scheme, modified from Savijarvi (1990, j. Appl. Metor. 29, 437-447)STRACO (convective), Rasch-Kristjansson (stratiform), Kain-Fritsch (meso scale convective)
GEM-AQPrognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy [Benoıt et al., 1989]. Shallow convection is simulated using a method described by Mailhot (1994) and is treated as a special case of the turbulent planetary boundary layer to include the saturated case in the absence of precipitation.Kuo-type convective parameterization [Kuo, 1974; Mailhot et al., 1989]; Kain-Fritsch (1990, 1993)Force-restore [Deardorff, 1978; Benoıt et al., 1989], ISBA, CLASSThe infrared radiation scheme [Garand, 1983; Garand and Mailhot, 1990; Yu et al., 1997] includes the effects of water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and clouds. The solar radiation scheme follows the method described by Fouquart and Bonnel (1980).Gravity wave drag parameterization based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic variations [McFarlane, 1987; McLandress and McFarlane, 1993]
M-SYSfirst order closure, different schemes for different scales and within one scale (TKE-l, TKE-epsilon, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..)resolved with km grid and higher resolution; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesConstant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregationEnergy budget (force restore method)humidity budget (force restore method)Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesnot consideredKessler-type
MC2-AQturbulence variables (TKE, mixing length,...) for a partly cloudy boundary layer, in the framework of a unified turbulence-cloudiness formulation. Uses moist conservative variables diagnostic relations for the mixing and dissipation lengths, and a predictive equation for moist TKE. Mixing length formulation based on Bougeault and Lacarrere.several schemes available, but not used for tracer transport: classical Manabe-type moist convective adjustment scheme (Daley et al., 1976), three Kuo-type schemes, relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme ((Moorthi and Suarez, 1992), Fritsch-Chappell convective scheme (Fritsch and Chappell, 1980)'Force-Restore' method or ISBA schemeadvanced scheme in finding the infrared and solar radiation and calculation of clouds (Infra-red rate of cooling, Visible rate of heating, Visible flux to ground, Infra-red flux to ground, Infra-red flux to the top of the atmosphere, Visible flux to the top of the atmosphere, Planetary albedo) gravity wave drag parameterization is based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic varations (McFarlane, 1987)explicit microphysics for cold cloud (warm + cold, graupel category included) - combined Kong & Yau (1997, AO, Gamma distribution for ice/snow) microphysics with graupel
MCCM--
MEMO (UoT-GR)Optionally zero-, one- and two-equation schemes.Surface energy balance, Monin-Obukhov length theory.Surface energy balance.Parameterised (function of saturation).Efficient scheme based on the emissivity method for longwave radiation and an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation.Clouds only diagnostically, Gridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles. No ice.
MERCUREdifferent levels can be used : E-eps (standard and Duynkerke), E-L (Bougeault-Lacarrere), L (Louis, 1979) explicit resolutionMonin-Obukhov similarity and Louis (1982)-ECMWF formulationForce-resore method inspired by Deardorff (1978)idem (two layers model)solar : derived from Lacis-Hansen (1974), including simulated cloud and cloudy fraction and aerosol evolutions infra-red : based on emissivity approximation Musson-Genon (1987) for both schemes, gaseous absorbent are : H2O and its dimeres, O3, CO2 and aerosolsexplicitly resolvedtwo moment semi-spectral warm microphysical scheme, including interaction with turbulent scheme (Bouzereau, 2004)
Meso-NH1.5 order closure scheme with different mixing lengths Cuxart, J., Bougeault, Ph. and Redelsperger, J.L., 2000: A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1-30.Kain-Fritsch-Bechtold scheme Bechtold, P., E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart and E. Richard, 2001: A Mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869-886.Externalized surface model - For vegetation, ISBA scheme : Noilhan, J. and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 536-549. - For urban area, TEB scheme : Masson V. 2000, A physically based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models, Bound. Layer Meteor., 94, 357-397. - For ocean : Charnock formulation - No lake schemeComputed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fieldsComputed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fieldsECMWF radiation scheme for LW (RRTM) and SW. Morcrette, J.-J., 1991: Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European center for medium range weather forecasts forecasting system. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9121-9132. NoDifferent microphysical schemes with 1 or 2 moments The most used is a mixed 1-moment scheme with 5 or 6 prognostic species Pinty, J.-P. and P. Jabouille, 1998: A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale non-hydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations. Proc. Conf. of Cloud Physics, Everett, WA, USA, Amer. Meteor. soc., Aug. 1999, 217 - 220.
RCG
TAPMThe turbulence terms area determined by solving equations for turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate, and then using these values in representing the vertical fluxes by a gradient diffusion approach, including a counter-gradient term for heat flux.Boundary conditions for the turbulent fluxes are determined by Monin-Obukhov surface layer scaling variables with stability functions from Dyer and Hicks.If the surface type is water, then the surface temperature is set equal to the water surface temperature, and surface moisture is set equal to the saturation value. If the surface type is permanent ice/snow, then the surface temperature is set equal to –4°C, and surface moisture is set equal to the saturation value.Surface temperature and moisture are set to the deep soil values specified, with surface temperature adjusted for terrain height using the synoptic lapse rate.Conservation equations are solved for specific humidity.Radiation at the surface is used for the computation of surface boundary conditions and scaling variables, with the clear-sky incoming short-wave component from Mahrer and Pielke.Explicit cloud micro-physical processes are included.
WRF/Chemlevel 2.5 MYJ, or non local YSU schemeGrell and Devenyi, Betts-Miller, Kain Fritsch, Simplified Arakawa-Schubert, Relaxed Arakawa-SchubertNoah Land Surface model, or RUC Land Surface Model, or simple schemesGFDL, Goddard, Dudhia, or CAM radiation schemes. Goddard scheme is coupled to aerosolsMany microphysics Choices
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Boundary Conditions

surfacetoplateral inflowlateral outflow
ADREAThe concept of surface layer func-tions is adopted to avoid an excessive number of meshes near the ground due to very steep parameter gradients, occurring at the region.
BOLCHEMSurface model usedNo vertical motion condition at the topRelaxation conditionRelaxation condition
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATFriction boundary conditions for constant-flux layer with surface budget Free slip (vanishing vertical velocity and gradients)Relaxation conditions forcing adaption to profiles of outer-nest model or to reanalysis data of global model GME (within a zone of few cells at each lateral boundary)Same as lateral inflow
ENVIRO-HIRLAMSurface analysisClimate filesu,v,t,q,psu,v,t,q,ps
GEM-AQland-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo
M-SYSSeveral options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing dataTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary conditionTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition
MC2-AQvarious geophysical and climatological fields (land-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo)rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model toptime varying meteorological fields coming either from global model (GEM-AQ) results or from objective anaysis
MCCMSoil model
MEMO (UoT-GR)The lower boundary coincides with the ground (or, more precisely, a height above ground corresponding to its aerodynamic roughness). For the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation, inhomogeneous Neumann conditions are imposed. All otheNeumann for the horizontal velocity components and the potential temperature. To ensure non-reflectivity, a radiative condition is used for the hydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. For the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure Radiation conditions for u,v,w, potential temperature and pressure. For the nonhydrostatic mesoscale pressure perturbation, homogeneous Neumann conditions are used.see above
MERCUREsurface exchange parameterization (two layer model; cf. above)- prescribed large scale flow - optional absorbing layer- standard Dirichlet - optional absorbing layer- standard Neuman - optional absorbing layer
Meso-NHGiven by the externalized surface modelRigid For the coarser model, open boundary conditions with radiative properties from the LS coupling model. For the inner models, interpolation from the coarser grid.Radiative open boundary conditions
RCG
TAPMThe soil and vegetation parameterisations are based on those from Kowalczyk et al. (1991).At the model top boundary, all variables are set at their synoptic values.One-way nested lateral boundary conditions are used for the prognostic equations.
WRF/ChemSST'smass coordinateAnalysis data from operational centers, or 1-way nesting, also forecasts from operational centers
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Data Assimilation

nudging techniqueadjoint model3D-VAR4D-VAROIdetails
ADREA
BOLCHEMAssimilation of TEMP and SYNOP data (u, v, T, q).
CALMET/CALPUFFThe objective analysis procedure
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATInterpolated reanalysis data of global model GME serve as lateral boundary conditions at least for the outermost-nest model
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQCanadian Meteorological centre operation 4D-Var
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCUREnudging also used for 'Davies' type lateral boundary conditions
Meso-NHNo
RCG
TAPMThe method used to optionally assimilate wind observations is based on the approach of Stauffer and Seaman (1994), where a nudging term is added to the horizontal momentum equations (for u and v).
WRF/Chem4d-VAR under development
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Initialization

chemistry & transportmeteorology
ADREAOne-dimensional wind speed and temperature profiles are provided to be used as initial and boundary conditions. Models are also available for providing the meteorological input data. These are the code FILMAKER which provides meteorological three-dimensional fields from sparse observations and the code ADREA-diagn, a diagnostic meteorological model which provides mass-conserving three-dimensional wind fields
BOLCHEMInterpolated fields from global models or 1-way nestInterpolated fields from ECMWF or GFS or 1-way nest
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMxrestart from previous concentrationssurface data and radiosoundings.
COSMO-MUSCATClimatological background profiles (or zero) or global data for outermost-nest model as initialisation and boundary valuesInterpolated reanalysis data of global model GME or COSMO-DE (DWD, Offenbach, Germany) as initialisation and boundary values
ENVIRO-HIRLAMVariant of digital filtering
GEM-AQfields from previous runs
M-SYSinitialised with measured profiles, precalculation of first day to initialise 3d fields, second day and later to be evaluatedDynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with 1D pre-processors based on METRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain and constant large nudging, which decreases during the initialisation phase, restart uses METRAS results to continue
MC2-AQMC2 model uses a type of dynamic initialization. This is performed by first integrating the model forward intime for a small, O(10), number of timesteps (without physics) and then backward to the starting time to begin the forecast itself. As in other models, the initialization timestep is usually smaller then the one used for the regular intergration.
MCCMHorizontally homogeneous typical values or fields extracted from previous simulationFrom global model output (identical to MM5)
MEMO (UoT-GR)Initialisation is performed with suitable diagnostic methods: A mass-consistent initial wind field is formulated using an objective analysis model. Scalar fields are initialised using appropriate interpolating techniques. Data needed to apply the diagnostics methods may be derived either from observations or from larger scale simulations.
MERCURE- from radio sounding - interpolation from large scale model fields - use of an objective analysis pre-processing for field campaign (MINERVE code)
Meso-NHMOCAGE or MOZARTECMWF, ARPEGE, ALADIN for real cases Possibility of ideal cases.
RCG
TAPMThe model is initialised at each grid point with values of u, v, θ,q interpolated from the synoptic analyses. Iso-lines of these variables are oriented to be parallel to mean sea level (i.e. cutting into the terrain). Turbulence levels are set to their minimum values as the model is started at midnight. The Exner pressure function is integrated from mean sea level to the model top to determine the top boundary condition. The Exner pressure and terrain-following vertical velocity are then diagnosed using equations. Surface temperature and moisture are set to the deep soil values specified, with surface temperature adjusted for terrain height using the synoptic lapse rate.
WRF/Chem
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Nesting

one waytwo wayothervariables nestednesting onlinenesting offlinedata exchange by arraydata exchange by filetime step for data exchangeexplain method
ADREAuser defined (usually 1 hour)updating of boundary conditions
BOLCHEMdepends on resolution
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATUser-defined (e.g., 1 hour)Relaxation conditions forcing adaption to profiles of outer-nest model or to reanalysis data of global model GME (within a zone of few cells at each lateral boundary)
ENVIRO-HIRLAMC & T model online coupled in limited area forecast model, i.e possibility of data exchange every time step of met. model.
GEM-AQspecified by the user
M-SYSdepends on resolutionDavies scheme
MC2-AQOpen boundaries for one-way nesting implemented for semi-Lagrangian advection
MCCMUser defined
MEMO (UoT-GR)5 - 30 seconds
MERCUREevery- unstructured mesh allow for solving directly on the nested domains - only the largest nesting is one way
Meso-NHThe only constraint is that the ratio must be an integer. The exchange between both models occurs at the time step of the father model.Clark and Farley nesting technics Stein J., E. Richard, J.P. Lafore, J.P. Pinty, N. Asencio and S. Cosma, 2000: High -resolution non-hydrostatic simulations of flash-flood episodes with grid-nesting and ice-phase parametrization. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 72, 101-110
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chemfor 1-way nesting, time step is by choice, for 2-way nesting timestep depends on nesting ratio
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Coordinate System

HorizontalVertical
cartesianLambert conformallatitude / longituderotated lat. / long.z coordinatesurface fitted gridpressurecoordinatesigma coordinateremarks
ADREA
BOLCHEMThe grid is staggered in the horizontal (Arakawa C) and in the vertical (Lorenz).
CALMET/CALPUFFThe terrain-following vertical coordinate system The Lambert conformal grid for the large domain
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATVertical hybrid grid for Met and CT: terrain-following coordinates in lower, horizontal coordinates in upper atmosphere (based either on height or reference pressure). -- Horizontal grid: Uniform with nested sub-domains of raised spatial resolution (for CT only).
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQsigma-pressure hybrid vertical coordinate
M-SYS
MC2-AQvertical: Hybrid Terrain Following Vertical coordinate [SLEVE variation of Gal-Chen, Shaer et al. 2002] horizontal: rotated lat/long, polar-stereographic, mercator
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCUREunstructured mesh
Meso-NHFor the vertical, Gal-Chen-Somerville coordinate. For the horizontal, different conformal projections (Polar stereographic, Lambert, Mercator)
RCG
TAPM
WRF/ChemDepends on choice of dynamical core. WRF allows for different choices...
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Numeric I: Grid

Arakawa AArakawa BArakawa CArakawa DArakawa Euniform gridnonuniform gridEuler
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCAT
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCURE
Meso-NH
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chem
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Numeric II: Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsscalar quantitiesadditional information
ADREAFor the numerical solution, the SIMPLER/ADREA algorithm is used, based on the SIMPLER algorithm given in Patankar, (1980). The mixture mass conservation equation is turned to a full pressure (Poisson) including the transient term. Pressure correc-tion is avoided. Under-relaxation factors are also avoided.
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATSecond-order centered finite differencesSecond-order centered finite differences
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYScentered differences or (W)ENOupstream or (W)ENOvalues interpolated to other grid points by linear or higher order interpolation
MC2-AQThe discretization of the space derivatives is by finite differences on a grid staggered in the three dimensions. This arrangement is known as a Arakawa C-grid for the horizontal and a Tokioka B-grid for the vertical. The center of the elementary matrix is the pressure surrounded horizontally by U and V, and surrounded vertically by w, W and the scalars.
MCCMsee MM5 online tutorialsee MM5 online tutorial
MEMO (UoT-GR)The conservation equations for mass, momentum, are solved.The conservation equations for scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved.Fast elliptic solver, which is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction.
MERCUREfinite volume, cell centeredidempossibility to use different cell elements (tetrahedral, hexahedral...)
Meso-NH2nd order or 4th centred advection scheme2nd order or 4th positive definite advection scheme (PPM)
RCG
TAPM
WRF/ChemFor details check references
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Numeric III: Time Integration

explicitsplit-explicitsemi-implicitother
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATLeapfrog method
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYSvertical dffusion semi-implicit, all aother explicit first and second order
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCURE
Meso-NH
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chem
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Validation & evaluation - Overview

analytic solutionsevaluated reference datasetmodel intercomparisonadditional validation & evaluation efforts
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCAT
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCURE
Meso-NH
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chem
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Validation & evaluation - Application in Comparison Projects

AQMEIIList experiments (AQMEII)Cost728List experiments (COST728)HTAPList experiments (HTAP)MEGAPOLIList experiments (MEGAPOLI)
ADREA
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
COSMO-MUSCATEU 2006Winter 2003, Spring 2006
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MERCURE
Meso-NH
RCG
TAPM
WRF/Chem
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