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Summary tables for mesoscale meteorology models

Table of contents

Prognostic equations and calculated meteorological variables

uvwζpvTθθlpGphρqvqtqlcqfqscqlrqshqsgqssNEεKziother variables iother variables iiother variables iii
ADREA
ALADIN/A
ALADIN/PL
ARPS
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLM
COSMO-2
COSMO-7
COSMO-CLM
COSMO-MUSCAT
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GESIMApassive constituents concentrationstracers
GMEO3 mixing ratio in stratosphere
Hirlam
LAMIremark: diagnostic zi and qlc from DIAGMET postproc.
LMEremark: most diagnostic parameters , deduced in LME or postprocessing; mix. height from separ. post-processor
LME_MHinput parameters from LME output(directly or derived)
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)Turbulence data, deposition, cloudsOptionally concentrations of inert pollutantsGridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles.
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCUREconcentration in pollutants, including heavy gaz
METRASconcentrationsparticlespassive tracers
MM5 (UoA-GR)atmospheric radiation tendency, Pstar, ground temperature, accumulative convective rain, accumulative nonconvective rain, PBL height, PB regime, surface sensible heat flux, surface latent heat flux, frictional velocity, surface downward shortwave radiatio
MM5 (UoA-PT)atmospheric radiation tendency, Pstar, ground temperature, accumulative convective rain, accumulative nonconvective rain, PBL height, PB regime, surfae sensible heat flux, surface latent heat flux, frictional velocity, surface downward shortwave radiation
MM5 (UoH-UK)perturbation pressure
MM5(GKSS-D)pressure perturbation
Meso-NH
NHHIRLAMsurface pressure
RAMS
RCG
SAIMM
TAPM
UMPrognostic cloud scheme available.
WRF-ARW
WRF/ChemDependent on dynamic core and choice of physicscan be run dry or with second moment microphysicsMay also produce probabilistic non-resolved convective parameterization output
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Diagnostically calculated meteorological variables

Model type

Approximations

Boussinesqanelastichydrostaticflat earthremarks
ADREA
ALADIN/A
ALADIN/PL
ARPSARPS is non-hydrostatic and compressible
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFFCALMET is a diagnostic 3-dimensional meteorological model; it iterpolate meteorological data (surface and radiosoundins)also using kinematic effects, slope flow, blocking effects. It includes divergency minimization procedure and micrometeorological model for overland and overwater boundary layers. In Krakow we replace radiosoundings by data from ALADIN/PL.
CALMET/CAMxCALMET is a diagnostic model; it interpolates the meteorological data (surface and radiosoundings) also using kinematic effects, slope flows and blocking effects. Vertical velocity is derived from a divergence minimization scheme.
CLM
COSMO-2non-hydrostatic, compressible
COSMO-7non-hydrostatic, compressible
COSMO-CLM
COSMO-MUSCATNon-hydrostatic, compressible, surface heterogeneity (orography, land use)
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GESIMA
GME
Hirlam
LAMInon-hydrostatic compressible
LMEnon-hydrostatic compressible
LME_MH
M-SYS
MC2-AQFully compressible, non hydrostatic Euler equations [Tanguay et al. 1990; Benoit et al. 1997}
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MEMO (UoA-PT)MEMO is a non-hydrostatic model.
MERCUREtakes into account topography but not earth curvature
METRAS
MM5 (UoA-GR)MM5 3.6.1 is a non-hydrostatic model
MM5 (UoA-PT)
MM5 (UoH-UK)
MM5(GKSS-D)
Meso-NHThe model is based upon the Lipps and Hemler anelastic system.
NHHIRLAMAll approximations are possible as options. However HIRLAM is pressure coordinate based model and the approximations do not match exactly.
RAMS
RCG
SAIMM
TAPM
UMNo significant approximations to continuous equations. This includes NOT using the shallow atmosphere/traditional approximation common in th emajority of models.
WRF-ARW- compressible, non-hydrostatic Euler equations - terrain-following mass vertical coordinate
WRF/Chemfully compressible equations
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Parametrizations

turbulence schemedeep convectionsurface exchangesurface temperaturesurface humidityradiationunresolved orographic dragclouds / rainremarks
ADREAzero, one (k-l, k-ζ) or two-equations (k-ε) schemeIn the surface heat budget equation, the net radiative flux balances the fluxes of sensible, latent and soil heat.The infrared radiation follows Pielke (1984). The net longwave irradiance is based on Stephens (1984).constant drop model (Rogers, 1989)
ALADIN/AFirst order turbulence closure (Louis, 1979; Louis et al., 1982).Bougeault schemeISBAISBAISBAFRMBoer et al. (1984)Kessler (1969)
ALADIN/PLFirst order turbulence closure (Louis, 1979;Louis et al., 1982).Bougeault schemeISBAISBAISBAFRMBoer et al. (1984)Kessler (1969)
ARPSseveral available, we mainly use the 1.5 order TKE scheme, together with the Sun and Chang (1986) non-local mixing length for convective conditionsKain-FritschARPS contains a modified version of the Noilhan and Planton (1989) scheme, we have replaced that for our own use by the De Ridder and Schayes (1997) scheme. id. id. Advanced LW & SW schemesNone, foreseen to incorporate that in the future.Explicit microphysics.
BOLCHEME-lKain-Frisch, 1990. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2784-2802.Heat and specific humidity fluxes are computed with iterative procedure based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Soil model (4 layers)Soil model (4 layers)Infrared and solar, interacting with clouds (Ritter and Geleyn, 1992, Mon. Wea. Rev. 120 (2), 303-325) + Morcrette J. J.roughness proportional to unresolved orographic varianceMicro-physical processes included
CALMET/CALPUFFbased on similarity theory or Parsquill-Gifford-Turner class Overland Holtslag and van Ulden (1983)during unstable conditions and Weil and Brower (1983)based on Venkatram (1980)during stable conditionsinterpolationHoltslag and van Ulden (1983)
CALMET/CAMxHolstag and van Ulden (1983), Venkatram (1980) for momentum flux in stable conditionsinterpolation.Holstag and Van Ulden (1983)
CLMbased on a second-order closure at hierarchy level 2.0 (Mellor and Yamada (1974)Tiedtke (1989) mass-flux convection scheme with equilibrium closure based on moisture convergence. Option for the Kain-Fritsch (1992) convection scheme with non-equilibrium CAPE-type closure.refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equationfrom multi-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2from multi-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture.delta-two-stream radiation scheme after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) for short and longwave fluxes (employing eight spectral intervals); full cloud-radiation feedback.orographic drag considered in TKE schemeElaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. Cloud water condensation and evaporation by saturation adjustment. Precipitation formation by a bulk microphysics parameterization including water vapour, cloud water, rain and snow with column equilibrium for the precipitating phases. Option for a new bulk scheme including cloud ice. Option for 3-d precipitation transport. Subgrid-scale cloudiness is interpreted by an empirical function depending on relative humidity and height. A corresponding cloud water content is also interpreted.
COSMO-2prognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974)deep convection resolved on grid scalerefined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equationfrom 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise, 2001, in COSMO Tech. Rep. 2)from 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisturedelta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992)orographic drag considered in TKE schemeelaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow
COSMO-7prognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974)mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equationfrom 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise, 2001, in COSMO Tech. Rep. 2)from 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture.delta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992)orographic drag considered in TKE schemeelaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow.
COSMO-CLMbased on a second-order closure at hierarchy level 2.0 (Mellor and Yamada (1974)Tiedtke (1989) mass-flux convection scheme with equilibrium closure based on moisture convergence. Option for the Kain-Fritsch (1992) convection scheme with non-equilibrium CAPE-type closure.refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equationfrom multi-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2from multi-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture.delta-two-stream radiation scheme after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) for short and longwave fluxes (employing eight spectral intervals); full cloud-radiation feedback.orographic drag considered in TKE schemeElaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. Cloud water condensation and evaporation by saturation adjustment. Precipitation formation by a bulk microphysics parameterization including water vapour, cloud water, rain and snow with column equilibrium for the precipitating phases. Option for a new bulk scheme including cloud ice. Option for 3-d precipitation transport. Subgrid-scale cloudiness is interpreted by an empirical function depending on relative humidity and height. A corresponding cloud water content is also interpreted.
COSMO-MUSCATBased on prognostic turbulent kinetic energy and mixing length; considering e.g. vertical wind shear and thermal stabilityTiedtke mass-flux scheme with equilibrium closureDrag-law formulation with Louis transfer coefficients; considering resistances in the turbulent, viscous, and surface sublayersEnergy budget considering vertical heat fluxes in atmosphere and soil as well as melting and freezing (snow, ice, water) on surface; with prognostic multi-layer soil modelHumidity budget considering vertical water fluxes, horizontal runoff, and plant transpiration in atmosphere and soil; with prognostic multi-layer soil modelTwo-stream transfer equations for 8 spectral intervals; shading by cloudsClouds: Kessler bulk scheme with saturation adjustment. -- Rain: autoconversion of cloud water, accretion of cloud water by rain drops, evaporation, and sedimentation.
ENVIRO-HIRLAMHIRLAM TKE-l scheme. Modification of the CBR (Cuxart et. al, 2000, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 126, 1-30) scheme.STRACO (Soft TRAnsition COndensation) scheme.ISBA (Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere) surface analysis.ISBA surface analysis.ISBA surface analysis.HIRLAM radiation scheme, modified from Savijarvi (1990, j. Appl. Metor. 29, 437-447)STRACO (convective), Rasch-Kristjansson (stratiform), Kain-Fritsch (meso scale convective)
GEM-AQPrognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy [Benoıt et al., 1989]. Shallow convection is simulated using a method described by Mailhot (1994) and is treated as a special case of the turbulent planetary boundary layer to include the saturated case in the absence of precipitation.Kuo-type convective parameterization [Kuo, 1974; Mailhot et al., 1989]; Kain-Fritsch (1990, 1993)Force-restore [Deardorff, 1978; Benoıt et al., 1989], ISBA, CLASSThe infrared radiation scheme [Garand, 1983; Garand and Mailhot, 1990; Yu et al., 1997] includes the effects of water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and clouds. The solar radiation scheme follows the method described by Fouquart and Bonnel (1980).Gravity wave drag parameterization based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic variations [McFarlane, 1987; McLandress and McFarlane, 1993]
GESIMAchoice of a) constant b) algebraic c) Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5implementedenergy balance with stability functions from Louisfrom energy balanceforce-restore methodoptions: a) SW: simple transmission. LW: 2-stream-method with broad-band approximation (Bakan) b) detailed line-model (Schmetz)not consideredKessler-type scheme with extensions. Options: a) bulk parameterization b) quasi-spectral parameterization c) quasi-spectral with log-normal distributions
GMEdiagnostic, 2nd order scheme based on Mellor and Yamada (1974)mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989)based on Louis (1979) for the Prandtl layerfrom 7-layer prognostic soil model, solution of heat conduction equationfrom 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture.delta-2-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992).sub-grid scale orographic drag after Lott and Miller (1997)elaborate Kessler-style scheme incl. coud water and ice, rain water and snow (Doms and Schättler, 1997)
HirlamCBR (Cuxart Bougeault Lacarrere) plus changes in length scale formulation, order 1.5 TKE schemeSTRACO (Soft TRansition COndensation), adjusted Kuo schemeISBA (Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) scheme, tile scheme with 5 different tilesForce restore methodSimple and fast Savijarvi schemeparameterized through orographic roughness, no gravity wave drag parameterizationSTRACO
LAMIprognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equationdelta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992)orographic drag considered in TKE schemeelaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow.
LMEprognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equationfrom LME 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2from LME 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture. delta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) orographic drag considered in TKE schemeelaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow.
LME_MHdiagnostic extended level 2 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation see LME model documentation see LME model documentation
M-SYSfirst order closure, different schemes for different scales and within one scale (TKE-l, TKE-epsilon, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..)resolved with km grid and higher resolution; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesConstant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregationEnergy budget (force restore method)humidity budget (force restore method)Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesnot consideredKessler-type
MC2-AQturbulence variables (TKE, mixing length,...) for a partly cloudy boundary layer, in the framework of a unified turbulence-cloudiness formulation. Uses moist conservative variables diagnostic relations for the mixing and dissipation lengths, and a predictive equation for moist TKE. Mixing length formulation based on Bougeault and Lacarrere.several schemes available, but not used for tracer transport: classical Manabe-type moist convective adjustment scheme (Daley et al., 1976), three Kuo-type schemes, relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme ((Moorthi and Suarez, 1992), Fritsch-Chappell convective scheme (Fritsch and Chappell, 1980)'Force-Restore' method or ISBA schemeadvanced scheme in finding the infrared and solar radiation and calculation of clouds (Infra-red rate of cooling, Visible rate of heating, Visible flux to ground, Infra-red flux to ground, Infra-red flux to the top of the atmosphere, Visible flux to the top of the atmosphere, Planetary albedo) gravity wave drag parameterization is based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic varations (McFarlane, 1987)explicit microphysics for cold cloud (warm + cold, graupel category included) - combined Kong & Yau (1997, AO, Gamma distribution for ice/snow) microphysics with graupel
MCCM--
MEMO (UoT-GR)Optionally zero-, one- and two-equation schemes.Surface energy balance, Monin-Obukhov length theory.Surface energy balance.Parameterised (function of saturation).Efficient scheme based on the emissivity method for longwave radiation and an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation.Clouds only diagnostically, Gridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles. No ice.
MEMO (UoA-PT)1- Pandolfo (exchange coeficients) 2- Schumman 3- K-theory 4- K-e closure 5- Transilient turbulence theory surface energy balance, Monin-Obukhnov lenght theorySurface energy balancePlease refer to the technical referenceRadiative transfer calculated based on the emissivity method for longwave radiation and an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiationNot considered
MERCUREdifferent levels can be used : E-eps (standard and Duynkerke), E-L (Bougeault-Lacarrere), L (Louis, 1979) explicit resolutionMonin-Obukhov similarity and Louis (1982)-ECMWF formulationForce-resore method inspired by Deardorff (1978)idem (two layers model)solar : derived from Lacis-Hansen (1974), including simulated cloud and cloudy fraction and aerosol evolutions infra-red : based on emissivity approximation Musson-Genon (1987) for both schemes, gaseous absorbent are : H2O and its dimeres, O3, CO2 and aerosolsexplicitly resolvedtwo moment semi-spectral warm microphysical scheme, including interaction with turbulent scheme (Bouzereau, 2004)
METRASSeveral schemes (TKE-l, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..)resolved with km grid; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes Constant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregationEnergy budget (force restore method)humidity budget (force restore method)Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxesnot consideredKessler-type
MM5 (UoA-GR)Bulk PBL, high resolution Blackadar PBL, Burk. Thompson PBL, Eta PBL, MRF PBL, Gayno-Seaman PBL, Pleim-Chang PBLestimated in selected PBL shemeestimated in selected PBL shemeestimated in selected PBL shemeStable precipitation, warm rain, simple ice, Mixed-Phase, Goddard microphysics, Reinsner graupel, Schultz microphysicssimple cooling, surface radiation, clod-radiation scheme, CCM2 radiation scheme, RRTM longwave schemeAnthes-Kuo, Grell, Arakawa-Schubert, Fritsch-Chappell, Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller
MM5 (UoA-PT)Bulk PBL, high resolution Blackadar PBL, Burk. Thompson PBL, Eta PBL, MRF PBL, Gayno-Seaman PBL, Pleim-Chang PBLestimated in selected PBL shemeestimated in selected PBL shemeestimated in selected PBL shemeStable precipitation, warm rain, simple ice, Mixed-Phase, Goddard microphysics, Reinsner graupel, Schultz microphysicssimple cooling, surface radiation, clod-radiation scheme, CCM2 radiation scheme, RRTM longwave schemeAnthes-Kuo, Grell, Arakawa-Schubert, Fritsch-Chappell, Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller
MM5 (UoH-UK)Non-local vertical mixing scheme based on Blackadar scheme; Local high-order TKE prognostic scheme based on Mellor-Yamada (1982) formulas.Bulk-aerodynamic parameterization or similarity theory computed from a surface energy budget that is base on the 'force-restore' method developed by Blackadar(Zhang and Anthes 1982); Five-Layer Soil; Noah Land-Surface Model or Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface ModelBulk-aerodynamic parameterization or similarity theory broadband emissivity method taking into account water vapor, carbon dioxide,ozone and cloud Nonconvective precipitation scheme; Warm Rain; simle ice; Mixed-Phase; Goddard microphysics; Reisner graupel;Schultz microphysics
MM5(GKSS-D)7 different schemes can be used. AT GKSS the MRF scheme, based on Troen and Mahrt countergradient term and K-profile in the well mixed PBL. Details given by Hong and Pan (Mon. Wea. Rev., 1996).Bulk aerodynamic parameterisationBulk aerodynamic parameterisationshortwave and longwave broadband schemes considering clouds7 different schemes are available. At GKSS the Reisner scheme inculding rain, ice, snow and graupel is used
Meso-NH1.5 order closure scheme with different mixing lengths Cuxart, J., Bougeault, Ph. and Redelsperger, J.L., 2000: A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1-30.Kain-Fritsch-Bechtold scheme Bechtold, P., E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart and E. Richard, 2001: A Mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869-886.Externalized surface model - For vegetation, ISBA scheme : Noilhan, J. and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 536-549. - For urban area, TEB scheme : Masson V. 2000, A physically based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models, Bound. Layer Meteor., 94, 357-397. - For ocean : Charnock formulation - No lake schemeComputed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fieldsComputed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fieldsECMWF radiation scheme for LW (RRTM) and SW. Morcrette, J.-J., 1991: Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European center for medium range weather forecasts forecasting system. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9121-9132. NoDifferent microphysical schemes with 1 or 2 moments The most used is a mixed 1-moment scheme with 5 or 6 prognostic species Pinty, J.-P. and P. Jabouille, 1998: A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale non-hydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations. Proc. Conf. of Cloud Physics, Everett, WA, USA, Amer. Meteor. soc., Aug. 1999, 217 - 220.
NHHIRLAMCBR (Cuxart et al., 2000)STRACOISBAISBAISBASavijärvi Slingo(1987)/Sundqvist(1988)
RAMSMellor and Yamada level 2.5 scheme with prognostic turbulent kinetic energy.A modification of the generalized form of the Kuo parameterization described by Molinari.Surface fluxes momentum, heat and water vapour are computed from similarity theory of Louis.SVAT model (LEAF-2)SVAT model (LEAF-2)Chen and Cotton.The representation of cloud and precipitation microphysics in RAMS includes the treatment of each water species (cloud water, rain, pristine ice, snow, aggregates, graupel, hail) as a generalized Gamma distribution.
RCG
SAIMMfirst order closure sheme-local-K scheme (first order)predicted by assuming a net heat-flux divergence across a thin, isothermal slab of soil reference: Tremback, C. and R.C. Kessler. 1985. A surface temperature and moisture parameterization for use in mesoscale numerical models. Proceedings of the seventh conference on numerical weather prediction, June 17-20, Montreal Quebec, Canada.Longwave radiation emitted by the surface is calculated assuming that the surface emits as a blackbody. Above the surface, the longwave radiative transfer equation is simplified by the Sasamori approximation: Sasamori, T., 1972. A linear harmonic analysis of atmospheric motion with radiative dissipation. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 50:505-517.the model use coordinates terrain following--
TAPMThe turbulence terms area determined by solving equations for turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate, and then using these values in representing the vertical fluxes by a gradient diffusion approach, including a counter-gradient term for heat flux.Boundary conditions for the turbulent fluxes are determined by Monin-Obukhov surface layer scaling variables with stability functions from Dyer and Hicks.If the surface type is water, then the surface temperature is set equal to the water surface temperature, and surface moisture is set equal to the saturation value. If the surface type is permanent ice/snow, then the surface temperature is set equal to –4°C, and surface moisture is set equal to the saturation value.Surface temperature and moisture are set to the deep soil values specified, with surface temperature adjusted for terrain height using the synoptic lapse rate.Conservation equations are solved for specific humidity.Radiation at the surface is used for the computation of surface boundary conditions and scaling variables, with the clear-sky incoming short-wave component from Mahrer and Pielke.Explicit cloud micro-physical processes are included.
UMNon-local, 1st order multi-regime PBL scheme (Locke et al)Mass flux with downdraughts and momentum transport, CAPE closure, based on Gregory and Rowntree. Not used at high resolution. MOSES II 9 tile, flux blended surface exchange. Includes urban tile.MOSES II subsurface soil temperature scheme (usually run with 4 layers), Penman-Monteith surface T with optional thermal canopy.MOSES II subsurface soil moisture scheme (usually run with 4 layers), includes soil moisture freezing. Penman-Monteith surface T with optional thermal canopy.Edwards-Slingo flexible multi-band two stream LW and SW.Orographic Roughness based on Grant and Mason. Gravity wave drag from Webster (not used at high resolution).Wilson and Ballard microphysics extended (Forbes) to include prognostic ice and snow, rain and graupel (each optionally prognostic or diagnostic). Smith diagnostic cloud scheme.
WRF-ARWKF, Betts-Miller-Janjic, Grell-Devenyi-Ensemblecomputed in Land-Surface Models: 5-layer thermal, Noah-LSM, Rapid Update Cycle Model LSM computed in Land-Surface Models: 5-layer thermal, Noah-LSM, Rapid Update Cycle Model LSM computed in Land-Surface Models: 5-layer thermal, Noah-LSM, Rapid Update Cycle Model LSM longwave: RRTM, Eta GFDL, shortwave: MM5 Dudhia, Goddard, Eta GFDLKessler, Purdue Lin, WRF Single Moment 3-class (WSM3), WSM5, WSM6, ETA grid-scale cloud and precipitation
WRF/Chemlevel 2.5 MYJ, or non local YSU schemeGrell and Devenyi, Betts-Miller, Kain Fritsch, Simplified Arakawa-Schubert, Relaxed Arakawa-SchubertNoah Land Surface model, or RUC Land Surface Model, or simple schemesGFDL, Goddard, Dudhia, or CAM radiation schemes. Goddard scheme is coupled to aerosolsMany microphysics Choices
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Boundary Conditions

surfacetoplateral inflowlateral outflow
ADREAThe concept of surface layer func-tions is adopted to avoid an excessive number of meshes near the ground due to very steep parameter gradients, occurring at the region.
ALADIN/Asurface pressure, orography, surface temperature and relative moisture contents, deep soil temperature and moisture contents, snow cover, albedo, emissivity, land sea mask, proportion of vegetation, roughness length, standard deviation, anisotropy and orientation of sub-grid scale orography.wind, temperature, specific humidity
ALADIN/PLsurface pressure, orography, surface temperature and relative moisure contents, snow cover, albedo, emissivity, land sea mask, proportion of vegetation, roughness lenght, standard deviation, anisotropy and orientation of sub-grid scale orographywind, temperature, specyfic humidity
ARPSLand surface scheme De Ridder and Schayes (1997)Rigid lid, Rayleigh damping.Relaxation to large-scale fields (nesting)Relaxation to large-scale fields (nesting)
BOLCHEMSurface model usedNo vertical motion condition at the topRelaxation conditionRelaxation condition
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLMDigital-Filter initialization of unbalanced initial states (Lynch et al., 1997) with options for adiabatic and diabatic initialization.Options for rigid lid condition and Rayleigh damping layer.1-way nesting by Davies-type lateral boundary formulation. Data from several coarse-grid models can be processed (GME, IFS, LM). Option for periodic boundary conditions.
COSMO-2Friction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance.Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances.Interpolation from ECMWF global model IFS, with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity
COSMO-7Friction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance. Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances. Interpolation from ECMWF global model IFS, with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity.
COSMO-CLMDigital-Filter initialization of unbalanced initial states (Lynch et al., 1997) with options for adiabatic and diabatic initialization.Options for rigid lid condition and Rayleigh damping layer.1-way nesting by Davies-type lateral boundary formulation. Data from several coarse-grid models can be processed (GME, IFS, LM). Option for periodic boundary conditions.
COSMO-MUSCATFriction boundary conditions for constant-flux layer with surface budget Free slip (vanishing vertical velocity and gradients)Relaxation conditions forcing adaption to profiles of outer-nest model or to reanalysis data of global model GME (within a zone of few cells at each lateral boundary)Same as lateral inflow
ENVIRO-HIRLAMSurface analysisClimate filesu,v,t,q,psu,v,t,q,ps
GEM-AQland-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo
GESIMAno-slip, energy-budget, land-use parametersrigid lid with sponge layerspecified values from synoptic background fieldsOrlanski-type radiating b.c.
GMESST from analysis fixed during model integrationmodel top at 10hPanone (global model)none (global model)
Hirlamprescibed SST ECMWF boundary condition filesECMWF boundary condition files
LAMIfriction boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance.Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances.interpolation from DWD's global model GME,with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables.
LMEfriction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance. Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances. interpolation from DWD's global model GME,with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity.
LME_MHsee LME model documentation see LME model documentation see LME model documentation see LME model documentation
M-SYSSeveral options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing dataTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary conditionTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition
MC2-AQvarious geophysical and climatological fields (land-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo)rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model toptime varying meteorological fields coming either from global model (GEM-AQ) results or from objective anaysis
MCCMSoil model
MEMO (UoT-GR)The lower boundary coincides with the ground (or, more precisely, a height above ground corresponding to its aerodynamic roughness). For the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation, inhomogeneous Neumann conditions are imposed. All otheNeumann for the horizontal velocity components and the potential temperature. To ensure non-reflectivity, a radiative condition is used for the hydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. For the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure Radiation conditions for u,v,w, potential temperature and pressure. For the nonhydrostatic mesoscale pressure perturbation, homogeneous Neumann conditions are used.see above
MEMO (UoA-PT)The lower boundary coincides with the ground. For mesoscale pressure perturbation, inhomogeneous Neumann consitions are imposed. All other consitions at the lower boundary follow the onin-Obukhov similarity theory.Neumann boundary conditions are imposed for horizontal velocity components and potential temperature. For the mesoscale pressure perturbation homogeneous staggered Dirichlet conditions are impose. Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.
MERCUREsurface exchange parameterization (two layer model; cf. above)- prescribed large scale flow - optional absorbing layer- standard Dirichlet - optional absorbing layer- standard Neuman - optional absorbing layer
METRASSeveral options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing dataTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary conditionTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition
MM5 (UoA-GR)The LOWBDY_DOMAINx file provides sea-surface temperature, substrate temperature, and optionally snow cover and sea-ice. The switch ISSTVAR allows multiple times in this file (created by INTERPF) to be read in as the model runs, which is the method of updating these fields in long-term simulations. - No upper boundary condition - Rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model top. This may be preferable for very coarse mesh simulations (50 km or more grids). 1. Upper radiative condition - Top vertical motion calculated to reduce reflection of energy from the model top preventing some spurious noise or energy build-up over topography. This is recommended for grid-lengths below 50 km. It works better for hydrostatic gravity wave scales, rather than inertial or nonhydrostatic scales. 1 - Fixed 2 - Time-dependent/Nest Outer two rows and columns have specified values of all predicted fields. Recommended for nests where time-dependent values are supplied by the parent domain. Not recommended for coarse mesh where only one outer row and column would be specified. 3 - Relaxation/inflow-outflow Outer row and column is specified by time-dependent value, next four points are relaxed towards the boundary values with a relaxation constant that decreases linearly away from the boundary.several options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditions
MM5 (UoA-PT)The LOWBDY_DOMAINx file provides sea-surface temperature, substrate temperature, and optionally snow cover and sea-ice. The switch ISSTVAR allows multiple times in this file (created by INTERPF) to be read in as the model runs, which is the method of updating these fields in long-term simulations. - No upper boundary condition - Rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model top. This may be preferable for very coarse mesh simulations (50 km or more grids). 1. Upper radiative condition - Top vertical motion calculated to reduce reflection of energy from the model top preventing some spurious noise or energy build-up over topography. This is recommended for grid-lengths below 50 km. It works better for hydrostatic gravity wave scales, rather than inertial or nonhydrostatic scales. 1 - Fixed 2 - Time-dependent/Nest Outer two rows and columns have specified values of all predicted fields. Recommended for nests where time-dependent values are supplied by the parent domain. Not recommended for coarse mesh where only one outer row and column would be specified. 3 - Relaxation/inflow-outflow Outer row and column is specified by time-dependent value, next four points are relaxed towards the boundary values with a relaxation constant that decreases linearly away from the boundary.
MM5 (UoH-UK)Many options are available: single slab with fixed-temperature substrate or five layer soil model base on the 'force-restore' method developed by Blackadar;Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface Model;Noah Land-Surface ModelRadiative boundary conditionsseveral options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditionsseveral options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditions
MM5(GKSS-D)4 options avalaible. AT GKSS NOAH land surface model with 4 layers is used. radiative boundary conditionstime dependent values in one outer row and column for the coarse mesh. Two outer rows and columns are used for nests. Several outer meteorology data sets can be used for lateral boundary conditions. At GKSS, ERA40 data is used. Depends on variables prescribed at the boundaries. Variables which are not specified by the outer meteorology fields are zero on inflow and zero grdaient on outflow.
Meso-NHGiven by the externalized surface modelRigid For the coarser model, open boundary conditions with radiative properties from the LS coupling model. For the inner models, interpolation from the coarser grid.Radiative open boundary conditions
NHHIRLAMno condition or weak spongeDavies, 1976Davies, 1976
RAMSSVAT model (LEAF-2)Rayleigh friction absorbing layer.Klemp and Wilhelmson scheme.Klemp and Wilhelmson
RCG
SAIMMno-slip condition (u=v=0) is specified for the horizontal velocities. For the vertical velocity, the lower boundary condition is always w*=0. The temperature at the ground surface is predicted from an energy balance through a Newton-Raphson iterative technique.the upper boundary is an isentropic surface with no horizontal velocity perturbation from the basic state.zero-gradient lateral boundary conditions are imposed on all prognostic variables--
TAPMThe soil and vegetation parameterisations are based on those from Kowalczyk et al. (1991).At the model top boundary, all variables are set at their synoptic values.One-way nested lateral boundary conditions are used for the prognostic equations.
UMNo slip or free slip in dynamics, no slip via PBL.w=0Davies relaxationDavies relaxation
WRF-ARW
WRF/ChemSST'smass coordinateAnalysis data from operational centers, or 1-way nesting, also forecasts from operational centers
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Data Assimilation

nudging techniqueadjoint model3D-VAR4D-VAROIdetails
ADREA
ALADIN/Ano
ALADIN/PLno
ARPSNudging is available in ARPS, we (VITO) haven't used it so far but we plan to do that in the future.
BOLCHEMAssimilation of TEMP and SYNOP data (u, v, T, q).
CALMET/CALPUFFThe objective analysis procedure
CALMET/CAMx
CLMcontinuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure. Plus variational soil moisture analysis and SST analys. and snow height analysis.
COSMO-2Continuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure. External snow height analysis.
COSMO-7Continuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure. External snow height analysis.
COSMO-CLMcontinuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure. Plus variational soil moisture analysis and SST analys. and snow height analysis.
COSMO-MUSCATInterpolated reanalysis data of global model GME serve as lateral boundary conditions at least for the outermost-nest model
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQCanadian Meteorological centre operation 4D-Var
GESIMAa) nudging of u,v,T,q,p(top) with adjustable form of coefficients b) the adjoint version is experimental (see KAPITZA, H., 1991: Numerical Experiments with the Adjoint of a Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model. Monthly Wea. Rev. 119, 2993-3011)
GMEintermittent data assimilation every 3h on the icosaedral GME grid
Hirlam
LAMIcontinuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure.
LMEcontinuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure. Plus variational soil moisture analysis and SST analys. and snow height analysis.
LME_MHonly in LME model, not in LME_MH
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCUREnudging also used for 'Davies' type lateral boundary conditions
METRAS
MM5 (UoA-GR)FDDA is a method of running a full-physics model while incorporating observations. Thus the model equations assure a dynamical consistency while the observations keep the model close to the true conditions and make up for errors and gaps in the initial analysis and deficiencies in model physics. The MM5 model uses the Newtonian-relaxation or nudging technique.
MM5 (UoA-PT)FDDA is a method of running a full-physics model while incorporating observations. Thus the model equations assure a dynamical consistency while the observations keep the model close to the true conditions and make up for errors and gaps in the initial analysis and deficiencies in model physics. The MM5 model uses the Newtonian-relaxation or nudging technique.
MM5 (UoH-UK)A continuous (every model time step) dynamical assimilation is used where forcing functions are added to the governing model equations to gradually 'nudge' the model state toward the observations.
MM5(GKSS-D)Dynamic assimilation every time step. Either observations, analysis fields or both can be used.
Meso-NHNo
NHHIRLAM
RAMSNudging type of four-dimensional data assimilation scheme with observational data. The technique combines the analysis nudging and the observational nudging schemes. Nudging based on 3D fields produced by RAMS Isentropic Analysis (ISAN) pre-processor.
RCG
SAIMMthe model employs the Newtonian relaxation or 'nudging' technique in which one or more of the time-dependent variables are relaxed or 'nudged' toward observed values during the course of the simulation. Reference: Sauffer, D.R. and N.L. Seaman. 1990. Use of four-dimensional data assimilation in a limited-area mesoscale model. PartI:experiments with synoptical-scale data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118: 1250-1277.
TAPMThe method used to optionally assimilate wind observations is based on the approach of Stauffer and Seaman (1994), where a nudging term is added to the horizontal momentum equations (for u and v).
UMCurrently 4D VAR at lower resolution, 3DVAR + latent heat nudging and moisture nudging at high resolution. Highest resolution operational analysis 12 km every 3 h. 4 km under test.
WRF-ARW
WRF/Chem4d-VAR under development
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Initialization

chemistry & transportmeteorology
ADREAOne-dimensional wind speed and temperature profiles are provided to be used as initial and boundary conditions. Models are also available for providing the meteorological input data. These are the code FILMAKER which provides meteorological three-dimensional fields from sparse observations and the code ADREA-diagn, a diagnostic meteorological model which provides mass-conserving three-dimensional wind fields
ALADIN/ADFI
ALADIN/PLDFI
ARPSInterpolation of 3-D gridded fields from a global model or from a previous coarser ARPS run.
BOLCHEMInterpolated fields from global models or 1-way nestInterpolated fields from ECMWF or GFS or 1-way nest
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMxrestart from previous concentrationssurface data and radiosoundings.
CLMdigital filter after Lynch (1997)
COSMO-2Model analysis, if unavailable: interpolated IFS analysis with digital filter after Lynch (1997)
COSMO-7Model analysis, if unavailable: interpolated IFS analysis with digital filter after Lynch (1997)
COSMO-CLMdigital filter after Lynch (1997)
COSMO-MUSCATClimatological background profiles (or zero) or global data for outermost-nest model as initialisation and boundary valuesInterpolated reanalysis data of global model GME or COSMO-DE (DWD, Offenbach, Germany) as initialisation and boundary values
ENVIRO-HIRLAMVariant of digital filtering
GEM-AQfields from previous runs
GESIMAstart from 3D synoptic fields without diastrophy (allow 2-3 hours for adjustment)
GMEincrementing digital filter initialisation (IDFI) after Lynch (1997) every 6h with averaging of normal modes in order to remove noise
HirlamLaunching DFI a 2-h forward forecast is filtered with DFI and used as starting point for the forecast. The forecast therefore actually starts at analysis time +1h
LAMI
LMEoperationally: model analysis also possible: interpolated Globalmodell GME analyses with digital filter after Lynch (1997)
LME_MHnone in LME_MH (but LME initialized) (MH spin-up time ~1 hour)
M-SYSinitialised with measured profiles, precalculation of first day to initialise 3d fields, second day and later to be evaluatedDynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with 1D pre-processors based on METRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain and constant large nudging, which decreases during the initialisation phase, restart uses METRAS results to continue
MC2-AQMC2 model uses a type of dynamic initialization. This is performed by first integrating the model forward intime for a small, O(10), number of timesteps (without physics) and then backward to the starting time to begin the forecast itself. As in other models, the initialization timestep is usually smaller then the one used for the regular intergration.
MCCMHorizontally homogeneous typical values or fields extracted from previous simulationFrom global model output (identical to MM5)
MEMO (UoT-GR)Initialisation is performed with suitable diagnostic methods: A mass-consistent initial wind field is formulated using an objective analysis model. Scalar fields are initialised using appropriate interpolating techniques. Data needed to apply the diagnostics methods may be derived either from observations or from larger scale simulations.
MEMO (UoA-PT)From meteo and landuse and orography data it creates meteo variable fields that characterize the synoptical state, through interpolation.
MERCURE- from radio sounding - interpolation from large scale model fields - use of an objective analysis pre-processing for field campaign (MINERVE code)
METRASDynamic initialisation: calculation of balanced fields with 1D pre-processors based on METRAS, cold run starts with flat terrrain and constant large nudging, which decreases during the initialisation phase, restart uses METRAS results to continue
MM5 (UoA-GR)REGRID pre-processor reads archived gridded meteorological analyses and forecasts on pressure levels and interpolate those analyses from some native grid and map projection to the horizontal grid and map projection as defined by the MM5 preprocessor program TERRAIN. REGRID handles pressure-level and surface analyses. Two-dimensional interpolation is performed on these levels. Other types of levels, such as constant height surfaces, isentropic levels or model sigma or eta levels, are not handled.
MM5 (UoA-PT)REGRID pre-processor reads archived gridded meteorological analyses and forecasts on pressure levels and interpolate those analyses from some native grid and map projection to the horizontal grid and map projection as defined by the MM5 preprocessor program TERRAIN. REGRID handles pressure-level and surface analyses. Two-dimensional interpolation is performed on these levels. Other types of levels, such as constant height surfaces, isentropic levels or model sigma or eta levels, are not handled.
MM5 (UoH-UK)The model first generates a hydrostatic input file on the hydrostatic sigma levels which is based on actual surface pressure, not reference pressure. To initialize the data for the nonhydrostatic model a further small vertical interpolation is needed to move to the nonhydrostatic sigma levels. This involves first calculating the heights of the hydrostatic levels, then doing a linear-in-height interpolation of u, v, T and q to the nonhydrostatic levels. Vertical velocity (w) is simply calculated from the pressure velocity (ω) obtained by integrating horizontal velocity divergence vertically while still on the hydrostatic sigma levels. This ω is then interpolated to the nonhydrostatic levels and converted to w (w=-ω/ρg). Pressure perturbation (p′) is initialized to give a hydrostatic balance. Once virtual temperature is known on the nonhydrostatic model levels, the model’s vertical velocity equation in finite difference form is used with the acceleration and advection terms set to zero. This leaves a relation between Tv(z) and the vertical gradient of p′. Given the sea level pressure, p′ at the lowest sigma level can be estimated, and then given the profile of virtual temperature vertical integration gives p′ at the other levels. This balance ensures that the initial vertical acceleration is zero in each model column.
MM5(GKSS-D)Initial conditions are generated from analysis fields (at GKSS: ERA40) on prescribed sigma levels. Pressure, temperature, wind and humidity are interpolated to the specified grid. Surface data and soil information can also be used.
Meso-NHMOCAGE or MOZARTECMWF, ARPEGE, ALADIN for real cases Possibility of ideal cases.
NHHIRLAMNormal mode initialisation
RAMSSpatial interpolation of Global Gridded analysis.
RCG
SAIMMThe SAIMM can be initialized using either static or dynamic initialization. Using the static initialization technique, the model is initialized with objectively analyzed fields of wind and potential temperature. Dynamic initialization makes use of the model's inherent adjustments mechanism to bring the wind and temperature fields into balance prior to the initial simulation time.
TAPMThe model is initialised at each grid point with values of u, v, θ,q interpolated from the synoptic analyses. Iso-lines of these variables are oriented to be parallel to mean sea level (i.e. cutting into the terrain). Turbulence levels are set to their minimum values as the model is started at midnight. The Exner pressure function is integrated from mean sea level to the model top to determine the top boundary condition. The Exner pressure and terrain-following vertical velocity are then diagnosed using equations. Surface temperature and moisture are set to the deep soil values specified, with surface temperature adjusted for terrain height using the synoptic lapse rate.
UM3D-VAR: Nudging of analysis increments, weak balance constraint or digital filter all available. First used most generally.
WRF-ARW3-dimensional initial conditions for real data
WRF/Chem
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Nesting

one waytwo wayothervariables nestednesting onlinenesting offlinedata exchange by arraydata exchange by filetime step for data exchangeexplain method
ADREAuser defined (usually 1 hour)updating of boundary conditions
ALADIN/A3 hoursDavies (1976)
ALADIN/PL3 hoursDavies (1976)
ARPSvariable, typically 1 hour
BOLCHEMdepends on resolution
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLM1 hour
COSMO-21 hourInterpolation
COSMO-73 hoursInterpolation
COSMO-CLM1 hour
COSMO-MUSCATUser-defined (e.g., 1 hour)Relaxation conditions forcing adaption to profiles of outer-nest model or to reanalysis data of global model GME (within a zone of few cells at each lateral boundary)
ENVIRO-HIRLAMC & T model online coupled in limited area forecast model, i.e possibility of data exchange every time step of met. model.
GEM-AQspecified by the user
GESIMAadjustableuses same logic as for data assimilation with nudging method
GME
Hirlam6h
LAMI1 hour
LME1 hour special LME-based interpolation tool
LME_MH
M-SYSdepends on resolutionDavies scheme
MC2-AQOpen boundaries for one-way nesting implemented for semi-Lagrangian advection
MCCMUser defined
MEMO (UoT-GR)5 - 30 seconds
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCUREevery- unstructured mesh allow for solving directly on the nested domains - only the largest nesting is one way
METRASAccording to the resolution, in typical applications once per hourDavies scheme
MM5 (UoA-GR)runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain One-way nesting When a single-domain or multiple-domain run completes, its domain output can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files. Two-way nesting Multiple domains can be run in MM5 at the same time. Up to nine domains on four levels of nest are allowed with each nest level one third of its parent domain's grid-length. Each domain takes information from its parent domain every timestep, and runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain on the coincident interior points.
MM5 (UoA-PT)every time-stepOne-way nesting When a single-domain or multiple-domain run completes, its domain output can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files. Two-way nesting Multiple domains can be run in MM5 at the same time. Up to nine domains on four levels of nest are allowed with each nest level one third of its parent domain's grid-length. Each domain takes information from its parent domain every timestep, and runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain on the coincident interior points.
MM5 (UoH-UK)every time stepFor one way nesting, domain output from courser domain can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files for higher resolution domains. For two-way nesting,multiple domains is run at the same time using 2-way interactive mesh refinement scheme.
MM5(GKSS-D)every time stepOne way nesting: initial and boundary conditions for the nest are calculated from the coarse grid (whose horizontal resolution is typically 3 times the nests resolution) for each timestep of the coarse grid. Two way nesting: new fields calculated in the nest feed back into the coarse grid.
Meso-NHThe only constraint is that the ratio must be an integer. The exchange between both models occurs at the time step of the father model.Clark and Farley nesting technics Stein J., E. Richard, J.P. Lafore, J.P. Pinty, N. Asencio and S. Cosma, 2000: High -resolution non-hydrostatic simulations of flash-flood episodes with grid-nesting and ice-phase parametrization. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 72, 101-110
NHHIRLAM6h
RAMSeach model domain corresponding time stepCommunication from the parent to the nested gris is accomplished immediatelly following a timestep on the parentgrid, which updates the prognostic fields.
RCG
SAIMMthere is no nesting capabilities
TAPM
UMFully flexible. Usually 5-15 min at 1km, 1-3h at 12 km.Davies relaxation.
WRF-ARW
WRF/Chemfor 1-way nesting, time step is by choice, for 2-way nesting timestep depends on nesting ratio
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Coordinate System

HorizontalVertical
cartesianLambert conformallatitude / longituderotated lat. / long.z coordinatesurface fitted gridpressurecoordinatesigma coordinateremarks
ADREA
ALADIN/A
ALADIN/PL
ARPS
BOLCHEMThe grid is staggered in the horizontal (Arakawa C) and in the vertical (Lorenz).
CALMET/CALPUFFThe terrain-following vertical coordinate system The Lambert conformal grid for the large domain
CALMET/CAMx
CLMhybrid pressure(at top of atmos.) and sigma coordinate
COSMO-2
COSMO-7
COSMO-CLMhybrid pressure(at top of atmos.) and sigma coordinate
COSMO-MUSCATVertical hybrid grid for Met and CT: terrain-following coordinates in lower, horizontal coordinates in upper atmosphere (based either on height or reference pressure). -- Horizontal grid: Uniform with nested sub-domains of raised spatial resolution (for CT only).
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQsigma-pressure hybrid vertical coordinate
GESIMA
GMEvertical coordinates: hybrid pressure (at top of atmos.) and sigma system. horizontal coordinates: regular icosahedral-hexagonal grid of 20 equilateral triangles to allow almost uniform discretisation on sphere following Baumgardner (1983)
Hirlam
LAMIhybrid coordinate, horizontal at top of atmosphere and terrain following below (normalized with standard surface pressure)
LMEhybrid pressure(at top of atmos.)and sigma coordinate
LME_MHidentical hybrid pressure/sigma grid as Lokalmodell
M-SYS
MC2-AQvertical: Hybrid Terrain Following Vertical coordinate [SLEVE variation of Gal-Chen, Shaer et al. 2002] horizontal: rotated lat/long, polar-stereographic, mercator
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCUREunstructured mesh
METRAS
MM5 (UoA-GR)Depending on the domain location the user can chose three types of map projections: Lambert conformal, Mercator or Polar Stereographic
MM5 (UoA-PT)Depending on the domain location the user can chose three types of map projections: Lambert conformal, Mercator or Polar Stereographic
MM5 (UoH-UK)
MM5(GKSS-D)Other types of map projections can be chosen: Mercartor or polar stereographic.
Meso-NHFor the vertical, Gal-Chen-Somerville coordinate. For the horizontal, different conformal projections (Polar stereographic, Lambert, Mercator)
NHHIRLAMhybrid coordinate
RAMSThe vertical structure of the grid uses the sigma-z terrain-following coordinate system (Gal-Chen and Somerville, 1975; Clark, 1977; Tripoli and Cotton, 1982).
RCG
SAIMMthe model tranform the cartesian coordinates to terrain-following coordinates
TAPM
UMVertical coordinate is hybrid height based - terrain following near surface, flat at top. Gal-Chen and SLEVE can be implemented, but we use a slightly different formulation. Charney-Philips staggering in vertical to avoid compuation modes and improve balance.
WRF-ARW
WRF/ChemDepends on choice of dynamical core. WRF allows for different choices...
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Numeric I: Grid

Numeric II: Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsscalar quantitiesadditional information
ADREAFor the numerical solution, the SIMPLER/ADREA algorithm is used, based on the SIMPLER algorithm given in Patankar, (1980). The mixture mass conservation equation is turned to a full pressure (Poisson) including the transient term. Pressure correc-tion is avoided. Under-relaxation factors are also avoided.
ALADIN/Aspectral
ALADIN/PLspectral
ARPS2nd or 4th order finite differencing, or else Zalesak's scheme (monotonic)id.
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLMSecond-order finite differencesSecond-order finite differences
COSMO-2grid point method with finite difference approximationgrid point method with finite difference approximation
COSMO-7grid point method with finite difference approximationgrid point method with finite difference approximation
COSMO-CLMSecond-order finite differencesSecond-order finite differences
COSMO-MUSCATSecond-order centered finite differencesSecond-order centered finite differences
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GESIMAMcCormack scheme (predictor/corrector) with alternating upstream/downstream discretizationSmolarkiewicz-Schemevertical diffusion terms semi-implicit; implicit pressure gradient terms by solving a Helmholtz-Equation with preconditioned conjugate gradient method
GMEon icosahedral grid following Baumgardner (1983)on icosahedral grid following Baumgardner (1983)
Hirlam
LAMIgrid point method with finite difference approximationgrid point method with finite difference approximation
LMEgrid point method with finite difference approximationgrid point method with finite difference approximation
LME_MHcentered differencescentered differences
M-SYScentered differences or (W)ENOupstream or (W)ENOvalues interpolated to other grid points by linear or higher order interpolation
MC2-AQThe discretization of the space derivatives is by finite differences on a grid staggered in the three dimensions. This arrangement is known as a Arakawa C-grid for the horizontal and a Tokioka B-grid for the vertical. The center of the elementary matrix is the pressure surrounded horizontally by U and V, and surrounded vertically by w, W and the scalars.
MCCMsee MM5 online tutorialsee MM5 online tutorial
MEMO (UoT-GR)The conservation equations for mass, momentum, are solved.The conservation equations for scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved.Fast elliptic solver, which is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction.
MEMO (UoA-PT)please refer to the techical reference.Includes thermal energy, water vapour, turbulent kinetic energy and polutant concentrations. For more details, please refer to the technical reference.
MERCUREfinite volume, cell centeredidempossibility to use different cell elements (tetrahedral, hexahedral...)
METRAScentered differences or (W)ENOupstream or (W)ENOcentered differences; values interpolated to other grid points by linear or higher order interpolation
MM5 (UoA-GR)please check te on-line tutorialplease check te on-line tutorial
MM5 (UoA-PT)please check the on-line tutorialplease check the on-line tutorial
MM5 (UoH-UK)For time integration, time-splitting scheme is used on fast terms, forward step is used for diffusion and microphysics. Some radiation and cumulus options use a constant tendency over periods of many model timesteps and are only recalculated every 30 minutes or so.
MM5(GKSS-D)
Meso-NH2nd order or 4th centred advection scheme2nd order or 4th positive definite advection scheme (PPM)
NHHIRLAM
RAMSSee: http://www.atmet.com/html/docs/rams/rams_techman.pdfSee: http://www.atmet.com/html/docs/rams/rams_techman.pdfSee: http://www.atmet.com/html/docs/rams/rams_techman.pdf
RCG
SAIMM
TAPM
UMSemi-Lagrangian, non-interpolating in vertical. Eulerian continuity at present.Semi-Lagrangian with monotone option and mass correction.non-uniform horizontal grid under test.
WRF-ARW
WRF/ChemFor details check references
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Numeric III: Time Integration

explicitsplit-explicitsemi-implicitother
ADREA
ALADIN/A
ALADIN/PL
ARPS
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLMSecond-order leapfrog HE-VI (horizontally explicit, vertically implicit)
COSMO-2split-explicit for 2 and 3 time levels
COSMO-7split-explicit for 2 and 3 time levels
COSMO-CLMSecond-order leapfrog HE-VI (horizontally explicit, vertically implicit); or Runge-Kutta
COSMO-MUSCATLeapfrog method
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GESIMAclouds with smaller time steps
GMEsemi-Lagrange for prognostic humidity variables and O3, split semi-implicit for Helmholtz equations
Hirlam
LAMIsplit-explicit for 2 and 3 time levels
LMEsplit-explicit for 2 and 3 time levels
LME_MH
M-SYSvertical dffusion semi-implicit, all aother explicit first and second order
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCURE
METRASvertical dffusion semi-implicit, all aother explicit fisrt and second order
MM5 (UoA-GR)A second-order leapfrog time-step scheme is used for these equations, but some terms are handled using a time-splitting scheme.
MM5 (UoA-PT)A second-order leapfrog time-step scheme is used for these equations, but some terms are handled using a time-splitting scheme.
MM5 (UoH-UK)
MM5(GKSS-D)second order leap frog. Time splitting for fast terms.
Meso-NH
NHHIRLAM
RAMS
RCG
SAIMM
TAPM
UM
WRF-ARW
WRF/Chem
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Validation & evaluation - Overview

Validation & evaluation - Application in Comparison Projects

AQMEIIList experiments (AQMEII)Cost728List experiments (COST728)HTAPList experiments (HTAP)MEGAPOLIList experiments (MEGAPOLI)
ADREA
ALADIN/A
ALADIN/PL
ARPS
BOLCHEM
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLM
COSMO-2
COSMO-7
COSMO-CLM
COSMO-MUSCATEU 2006Winter 2003, Spring 2006
ENVIRO-HIRLAM
GEM-AQ
GESIMA
GME
Hirlam
LAMI
LME
LME_MH
M-SYS
MC2-AQ
MCCM
MEMO (UoT-GR)
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCURE
METRAS
MM5 (UoA-GR)
MM5 (UoA-PT)
MM5 (UoH-UK)
MM5(GKSS-D)
Meso-NH
NHHIRLAM
RAMS
RCG
SAIMM
TAPM
UM
WRF-ARW
WRF/Chem
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