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Summary table: Nesting

one waytwo wayothervariables nestednesting onlinenesting offlinedata exchange by arraydata exchange by filetime step for data exchangeexplain method
ADREAuser defined (usually 1 hour)updating of boundary conditions
ALADIN/A3 hoursDavies (1976)
ALADIN/PL3 hoursDavies (1976)
ARPSvariable, typically 1 hour
BOLCHEMdepends on resolution
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLM1 hour
COSMO-21 hourInterpolation
COSMO-73 hoursInterpolation
COSMO-CLM1 hour
COSMO-MUSCATUser-defined (e.g., 1 hour)Relaxation conditions forcing adaption to profiles of outer-nest model or to reanalysis data of global model GME (within a zone of few cells at each lateral boundary)
ENVIRO-HIRLAMC & T model online coupled in limited area forecast model, i.e possibility of data exchange every time step of met. model.
GEM-AQspecified by the user
GESIMAadjustableuses same logic as for data assimilation with nudging method
GME
Hirlam6h
LAMI1 hour
LME1 hour special LME-based interpolation tool
LME_MH
M-SYSdepends on resolutionDavies scheme
MC2-AQOpen boundaries for one-way nesting implemented for semi-Lagrangian advection
MCCMUser defined
MEMO (UoT-GR)5 - 30 seconds
MEMO (UoA-PT)
MERCUREevery- unstructured mesh allow for solving directly on the nested domains - only the largest nesting is one way
METRASAccording to the resolution, in typical applications once per hourDavies scheme
METRAS-PCL
MM5 (UoA-GR)runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain One-way nesting When a single-domain or multiple-domain run completes, its domain output can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files. Two-way nesting Multiple domains can be run in MM5 at the same time. Up to nine domains on four levels of nest are allowed with each nest level one third of its parent domain's grid-length. Each domain takes information from its parent domain every timestep, and runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain on the coincident interior points.
MM5 (UoA-PT)every time-stepOne-way nesting When a single-domain or multiple-domain run completes, its domain output can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files. Two-way nesting Multiple domains can be run in MM5 at the same time. Up to nine domains on four levels of nest are allowed with each nest level one third of its parent domain's grid-length. Each domain takes information from its parent domain every timestep, and runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain on the coincident interior points.
MM5 (UoH-UK)every time stepFor one way nesting, domain output from courser domain can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files for higher resolution domains. For two-way nesting,multiple domains is run at the same time using 2-way interactive mesh refinement scheme.
MM5(GKSS-D)every time stepOne way nesting: initial and boundary conditions for the nest are calculated from the coarse grid (whose horizontal resolution is typically 3 times the nests resolution) for each timestep of the coarse grid. Two way nesting: new fields calculated in the nest feed back into the coarse grid.
Meso-NHThe only constraint is that the ratio must be an integer. The exchange between both models occurs at the time step of the father model.Clark and Farley nesting technics Stein J., E. Richard, J.P. Lafore, J.P. Pinty, N. Asencio and S. Cosma, 2000: High -resolution non-hydrostatic simulations of flash-flood episodes with grid-nesting and ice-phase parametrization. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 72, 101-110
NHHIRLAM6h
RAMSeach model domain corresponding time stepCommunication from the parent to the nested gris is accomplished immediatelly following a timestep on the parentgrid, which updates the prognostic fields.
RCG
SAIMMthere is no nesting capabilities
TAPM
UMFully flexible. Usually 5-15 min at 1km, 1-3h at 12 km.Davies relaxation.
WRF-ARW
WRF/Chemfor 1-way nesting, time step is by choice, for 2-way nesting timestep depends on nesting ratio
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