## Summary table: Parametrizations

turbulence scheme | deep convection | surface exchange | surface temperature | surface humidity | radiation | unresolved orographic drag | clouds / rain | remarks | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

ADREA | zero, one (k-l, k-ζ) or two-equations (k-ε) scheme | In the surface heat budget equation, the net radiative flux balances the fluxes of sensible, latent and soil heat. | The infrared radiation follows Pielke (1984). The net longwave irradiance is based on Stephens (1984). | constant drop model (Rogers, 1989) | |||||

ALADIN/A | First order turbulence closure (Louis, 1979; Louis et al., 1982). | Bougeault scheme | ISBA | ISBA | ISBA | FRM | Boer et al. (1984) | Kessler (1969) | |

ALADIN/PL | First order turbulence closure (Louis, 1979;Louis et al., 1982). | Bougeault scheme | ISBA | ISBA | ISBA | FRM | Boer et al. (1984) | Kessler (1969) | |

ARPS | several available, we mainly use the 1.5 order TKE scheme, together with the Sun and Chang (1986) non-local mixing length for convective conditions | Kain-Fritsch | ARPS contains a modified version of the Noilhan and Planton (1989) scheme, we have replaced that for our own use by the De Ridder and Schayes (1997) scheme. | id. | id. | Advanced LW & SW schemes | None, foreseen to incorporate that in the future. | Explicit microphysics. | |

BOLCHEM | E-l | Kain-Frisch, 1990. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2784-2802. | Heat and specific humidity fluxes are computed with iterative procedure based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. | Soil model (4 layers) | Soil model (4 layers) | Infrared and solar, interacting with clouds (Ritter and Geleyn, 1992, Mon. Wea. Rev. 120 (2), 303-325) + Morcrette J. J. | roughness proportional to unresolved orographic variance | Micro-physical processes included | |

CALMET/CALPUFF | based on similarity theory or Parsquill-Gifford-Turner class | Overland Holtslag and van Ulden (1983)during unstable conditions and Weil and Brower (1983)based on Venkatram (1980)during stable conditions | interpolation | Holtslag and van Ulden (1983) | |||||

CALMET/CAMx | Holstag and van Ulden (1983), Venkatram (1980) for momentum flux in stable conditions | interpolation. | Holstag and Van Ulden (1983) | ||||||

CLM | based on a second-order closure at hierarchy level 2.0 (Mellor and Yamada (1974) | Tiedtke (1989) mass-flux convection scheme with equilibrium closure based on moisture convergence. Option for the Kain-Fritsch (1992) convection scheme with non-equilibrium CAPE-type closure. | refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation | from multi-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2 | from multi-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture. | delta-two-stream radiation scheme after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) for short and longwave fluxes (employing eight spectral intervals); full cloud-radiation feedback. | orographic drag considered in TKE scheme | Elaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. Cloud water condensation and evaporation by saturation adjustment. Precipitation formation by a bulk microphysics parameterization including water vapour, cloud water, rain and snow with column equilibrium for the precipitating phases. Option for a new bulk scheme including cloud ice. Option for 3-d precipitation transport. Subgrid-scale cloudiness is interpreted by an empirical function depending on relative humidity and height. A corresponding cloud water content is also interpreted. | |

COSMO-2 | prognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) | deep convection resolved on grid scale | refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation | from 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise, 2001, in COSMO Tech. Rep. 2) | from 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture | delta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) | orographic drag considered in TKE scheme | elaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow | |

COSMO-7 | prognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) | mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) | refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation | from 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise, 2001, in COSMO Tech. Rep. 2) | from 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture. | delta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) | orographic drag considered in TKE scheme | elaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. | |

COSMO-CLM | based on a second-order closure at hierarchy level 2.0 (Mellor and Yamada (1974) | Tiedtke (1989) mass-flux convection scheme with equilibrium closure based on moisture convergence. Option for the Kain-Fritsch (1992) convection scheme with non-equilibrium CAPE-type closure. | refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation | from multi-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2 | from multi-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture. | delta-two-stream radiation scheme after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) for short and longwave fluxes (employing eight spectral intervals); full cloud-radiation feedback. | orographic drag considered in TKE scheme | Elaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. Cloud water condensation and evaporation by saturation adjustment. Precipitation formation by a bulk microphysics parameterization including water vapour, cloud water, rain and snow with column equilibrium for the precipitating phases. Option for a new bulk scheme including cloud ice. Option for 3-d precipitation transport. Subgrid-scale cloudiness is interpreted by an empirical function depending on relative humidity and height. A corresponding cloud water content is also interpreted. | |

COSMO-MUSCAT | Based on prognostic turbulent kinetic energy and mixing length; considering e.g. vertical wind shear and thermal stability | Tiedtke mass-flux scheme with equilibrium closure | Drag-law formulation with Louis transfer coefficients; considering resistances in the turbulent, viscous, and surface sublayers | Energy budget considering vertical heat fluxes in atmosphere and soil as well as melting and freezing (snow, ice, water) on surface; with prognostic multi-layer soil model | Humidity budget considering vertical water fluxes, horizontal runoff, and plant transpiration in atmosphere and soil; with prognostic multi-layer soil model | Two-stream transfer equations for 8 spectral intervals; shading by clouds | Clouds: Kessler bulk scheme with saturation adjustment. -- Rain: autoconversion of cloud water, accretion of cloud water by rain drops, evaporation, and sedimentation. | ||

ENVIRO-HIRLAM | HIRLAM TKE-l scheme. Modification of the CBR (Cuxart et. al, 2000, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 126, 1-30) scheme. | STRACO (Soft TRAnsition COndensation) scheme. | ISBA (Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere) surface analysis. | ISBA surface analysis. | ISBA surface analysis. | HIRLAM radiation scheme, modified from Savijarvi (1990, j. Appl. Metor. 29, 437-447) | STRACO (convective), Rasch-Kristjansson (stratiform), Kain-Fritsch (meso scale convective) | ||

GEM-AQ | Prognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy [Benoıt et al., 1989]. Shallow convection is simulated using a method described by Mailhot (1994) and is treated as a special case of the turbulent planetary boundary layer to include the saturated case in the absence of precipitation. | Kuo-type convective parameterization [Kuo, 1974; Mailhot et al., 1989]; Kain-Fritsch (1990, 1993) | Force-restore [Deardorff, 1978; Benoıt et al., 1989], ISBA, CLASS | The infrared radiation scheme [Garand, 1983; Garand and Mailhot, 1990; Yu et al., 1997] includes the effects of water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and clouds. The solar radiation scheme follows the method described by Fouquart and Bonnel (1980). | Gravity wave drag parameterization based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic variations [McFarlane, 1987; McLandress and McFarlane, 1993] | ||||

GESIMA | choice of a) constant b) algebraic c) Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 | implemented | energy balance with stability functions from Louis | from energy balance | force-restore method | options: a) SW: simple transmission. LW: 2-stream-method with broad-band approximation (Bakan) b) detailed line-model (Schmetz) | not considered | Kessler-type scheme with extensions. Options: a) bulk parameterization b) quasi-spectral parameterization c) quasi-spectral with log-normal distributions | |

GME | diagnostic, 2nd order scheme based on Mellor and Yamada (1974) | mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) | based on Louis (1979) for the Prandtl layer | from 7-layer prognostic soil model, solution of heat conduction equation | from 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture. | delta-2-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992). | sub-grid scale orographic drag after Lott and Miller (1997) | elaborate Kessler-style scheme incl. coud water and ice, rain water and snow (Doms and Schättler, 1997) | |

Hirlam | CBR (Cuxart Bougeault Lacarrere) plus changes in length scale formulation, order 1.5 TKE scheme | STRACO (Soft TRansition COndensation), adjusted Kuo scheme | ISBA (Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) scheme, tile scheme with 5 different tiles | Force restore method | Simple and fast Savijarvi scheme | parameterized through orographic roughness, no gravity wave drag parameterization | STRACO | ||

LAMI | prognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) | mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) | refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation | delta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) | orographic drag considered in TKE scheme | elaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. | |||

LME | prognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) | mass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989) | refined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation | from LME 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2 | from LME 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture. | delta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992) | orographic drag considered in TKE scheme | elaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow. | |

LME_MH | diagnostic extended level 2 after Mellor and Yamada (1974) | output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation | output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation | output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation | output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation | output taken from operational Lokalmodell, see LME model documentation | see LME model documentation | see LME model documentation | |

M-SYS | first order closure, different schemes for different scales and within one scale (TKE-l, TKE-epsilon, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..) | resolved with km grid and higher resolution; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes | Constant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregation | Energy budget (force restore method) | humidity budget (force restore method) | Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes | not considered | Kessler-type | |

MC2-AQ | turbulence variables (TKE, mixing length,...) for a partly cloudy boundary layer, in the framework of a unified turbulence-cloudiness formulation. Uses moist conservative variables diagnostic relations for the mixing and dissipation lengths, and a predictive equation for moist TKE. Mixing length formulation based on Bougeault and Lacarrere. | several schemes available, but not used for tracer transport: classical Manabe-type moist convective adjustment scheme (Daley et al., 1976), three Kuo-type schemes, relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme ((Moorthi and Suarez, 1992), Fritsch-Chappell convective scheme (Fritsch and Chappell, 1980) | 'Force-Restore' method or ISBA scheme | advanced scheme in finding the infrared and solar radiation and calculation of clouds (Infra-red rate of cooling, Visible rate of heating, Visible flux to ground, Infra-red flux to ground, Infra-red flux to the top of the atmosphere, Visible flux to the top of the atmosphere, Planetary albedo) | gravity wave drag parameterization is based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic varations (McFarlane, 1987) | explicit microphysics for cold cloud (warm + cold, graupel category included) - combined Kong & Yau (1997, AO, Gamma distribution for ice/snow) microphysics with graupel | |||

MCCM | -- | ||||||||

MEMO (UoT-GR) | Optionally zero-, one- and two-equation schemes. | Surface energy balance, Monin-Obukhov length theory. | Surface energy balance. | Parameterised (function of saturation). | Efficient scheme based on the emissivity method for longwave radiation and an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation. | Clouds only diagnostically, Gridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles. No ice. | |||

MEMO (UoA-PT) | 1- Pandolfo (exchange coeficients) 2- Schumman 3- K-theory 4- K-e closure 5- Transilient turbulence theory | surface energy balance, Monin-Obukhnov lenght theory | Surface energy balance | Please refer to the technical reference | Radiative transfer calculated based on the emissivity method for longwave radiation and an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation | Not considered | |||

MERCURE | different levels can be used : E-eps (standard and Duynkerke), E-L (Bougeault-Lacarrere), L (Louis, 1979) | explicit resolution | Monin-Obukhov similarity and Louis (1982)-ECMWF formulation | Force-resore method inspired by Deardorff (1978) | idem (two layers model) | solar : derived from Lacis-Hansen (1974), including simulated cloud and cloudy fraction and aerosol evolutions infra-red : based on emissivity approximation Musson-Genon (1987) for both schemes, gaseous absorbent are : H2O and its dimeres, O3, CO2 and aerosols | explicitly resolved | two moment semi-spectral warm microphysical scheme, including interaction with turbulent scheme (Bouzereau, 2004) | |

METRAS | Several schemes (TKE-l, counter gradient scheme; mixing length approach..) | resolved with km grid; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes | Constant flux layer; surface energy /humidity budget over land, constant temperature/humidity with Charnock (1955) for roughness over water, subgrid scale land use with flux aggregation | Energy budget (force restore method) | humidity budget (force restore method) | Short and long wave radiative fluxes: 2 way scheme; vertical averaging for devergence of radiative fluxes | not considered | Kessler-type | |

METRAS-PCL | |||||||||

MM5 (UoA-GR) | Bulk PBL, high resolution Blackadar PBL, Burk. Thompson PBL, Eta PBL, MRF PBL, Gayno-Seaman PBL, Pleim-Chang PBL | estimated in selected PBL sheme | estimated in selected PBL sheme | estimated in selected PBL sheme | Stable precipitation, warm rain, simple ice, Mixed-Phase, Goddard microphysics, Reinsner graupel, Schultz microphysics | simple cooling, surface radiation, clod-radiation scheme, CCM2 radiation scheme, RRTM longwave scheme | Anthes-Kuo, Grell, Arakawa-Schubert, Fritsch-Chappell, Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller | ||

MM5 (UoA-PT) | Bulk PBL, high resolution Blackadar PBL, Burk. Thompson PBL, Eta PBL, MRF PBL, Gayno-Seaman PBL, Pleim-Chang PBL | estimated in selected PBL sheme | estimated in selected PBL sheme | estimated in selected PBL sheme | Stable precipitation, warm rain, simple ice, Mixed-Phase, Goddard microphysics, Reinsner graupel, Schultz microphysics | simple cooling, surface radiation, clod-radiation scheme, CCM2 radiation scheme, RRTM longwave scheme | Anthes-Kuo, Grell, Arakawa-Schubert, Fritsch-Chappell, Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller | ||

MM5 (UoH-UK) | Non-local vertical mixing scheme based on Blackadar scheme; Local high-order TKE prognostic scheme based on Mellor-Yamada (1982) formulas. | Bulk-aerodynamic parameterization or similarity theory | computed from a surface energy budget that is base on the 'force-restore' method developed by Blackadar(Zhang and Anthes 1982); Five-Layer Soil; Noah Land-Surface Model or Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface Model | Bulk-aerodynamic parameterization or similarity theory | broadband emissivity method taking into account water vapor, carbon dioxide,ozone and cloud | Nonconvective precipitation scheme; Warm Rain; simle ice; Mixed-Phase; Goddard microphysics; Reisner graupel;Schultz microphysics | |||

MM5(GKSS-D) | 7 different schemes can be used. AT GKSS the MRF scheme, based on Troen and Mahrt countergradient term and K-profile in the well mixed PBL. Details given by Hong and Pan (Mon. Wea. Rev., 1996). | Bulk aerodynamic parameterisation | Bulk aerodynamic parameterisation | shortwave and longwave broadband schemes considering clouds | 7 different schemes are available. At GKSS the Reisner scheme inculding rain, ice, snow and graupel is used | ||||

Meso-NH | 1.5 order closure scheme with different mixing lengths Cuxart, J., Bougeault, Ph. and Redelsperger, J.L., 2000: A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 1-30. | Kain-Fritsch-Bechtold scheme Bechtold, P., E. Bazile, F. Guichard, P. Mascart and E. Richard, 2001: A Mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869-886. | Externalized surface model - For vegetation, ISBA scheme : Noilhan, J. and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 536-549. - For urban area, TEB scheme : Masson V. 2000, A physically based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models, Bound. Layer Meteor., 94, 357-397. - For ocean : Charnock formulation - No lake scheme | Computed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fields | Computed by surface model, according to atmospheric and radiative fields | ECMWF radiation scheme for LW (RRTM) and SW. Morcrette, J.-J., 1991: Radiation and cloud radiative properties in the European center for medium range weather forecasts forecasting system. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9121-9132. | No | Different microphysical schemes with 1 or 2 moments The most used is a mixed 1-moment scheme with 5 or 6 prognostic species Pinty, J.-P. and P. Jabouille, 1998: A mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in mesoscale non-hydrostatic model: simulations of a squall line and of orographic precipitations. Proc. Conf. of Cloud Physics, Everett, WA, USA, Amer. Meteor. soc., Aug. 1999, 217 - 220. | |

NHHIRLAM | CBR (Cuxart et al., 2000) | STRACO | ISBA | ISBA | ISBA | Savijärvi | Slingo(1987)/Sundqvist(1988) | ||

RAMS | Mellor and Yamada level 2.5 scheme with prognostic turbulent kinetic energy. | A modification of the generalized form of the Kuo parameterization described by Molinari. | Surface fluxes momentum, heat and water vapour are computed from similarity theory of Louis. | SVAT model (LEAF-2) | SVAT model (LEAF-2) | Chen and Cotton. | The representation of cloud and precipitation microphysics in RAMS includes the treatment of each water species (cloud water, rain, pristine ice, snow, aggregates, graupel, hail) as a generalized Gamma distribution. | ||

RCG | |||||||||

SAIMM | first order closure sheme | - | local-K scheme (first order) | predicted by assuming a net heat-flux divergence across a thin, isothermal slab of soil reference: Tremback, C. and R.C. Kessler. 1985. A surface temperature and moisture parameterization for use in mesoscale numerical models. Proceedings of the seventh conference on numerical weather prediction, June 17-20, Montreal Quebec, Canada. | Longwave radiation emitted by the surface is calculated assuming that the surface emits as a blackbody. Above the surface, the longwave radiative transfer equation is simplified by the Sasamori approximation: Sasamori, T., 1972. A linear harmonic analysis of atmospheric motion with radiative dissipation. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 50:505-517. | the model use coordinates terrain following | -- | ||

TAPM | The turbulence terms area determined by solving equations for turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate, and then using these values in representing the vertical fluxes by a gradient diffusion approach, including a counter-gradient term for heat flux. | Boundary conditions for the turbulent fluxes are determined by Monin-Obukhov surface layer scaling variables with stability functions from Dyer and Hicks. | If the surface type is water, then the surface temperature is set equal to the water surface temperature, and surface moisture is set equal to the saturation value. If the surface type is permanent ice/snow, then the surface temperature is set equal to –4°C, and surface moisture is set equal to the saturation value.Surface temperature and moisture are set to the deep soil values specified, with surface temperature adjusted for terrain height using the synoptic lapse rate. | Conservation equations are solved for specific humidity. | Radiation at the surface is used for the computation of surface boundary conditions and scaling variables, with the clear-sky incoming short-wave component from Mahrer and Pielke. | Explicit cloud micro-physical processes are included. | |||

UM | Non-local, 1st order multi-regime PBL scheme (Locke et al) | Mass flux with downdraughts and momentum transport, CAPE closure, based on Gregory and Rowntree. Not used at high resolution. | MOSES II 9 tile, flux blended surface exchange. Includes urban tile. | MOSES II subsurface soil temperature scheme (usually run with 4 layers), Penman-Monteith surface T with optional thermal canopy. | MOSES II subsurface soil moisture scheme (usually run with 4 layers), includes soil moisture freezing. Penman-Monteith surface T with optional thermal canopy. | Edwards-Slingo flexible multi-band two stream LW and SW. | Orographic Roughness based on Grant and Mason. Gravity wave drag from Webster (not used at high resolution). | Wilson and Ballard microphysics extended (Forbes) to include prognostic ice and snow, rain and graupel (each optionally prognostic or diagnostic). Smith diagnostic cloud scheme. | |

WRF-ARW | KF, Betts-Miller-Janjic, Grell-Devenyi-Ensemble | computed in Land-Surface Models: 5-layer thermal, Noah-LSM, Rapid Update Cycle Model LSM | computed in Land-Surface Models: 5-layer thermal, Noah-LSM, Rapid Update Cycle Model LSM | computed in Land-Surface Models: 5-layer thermal, Noah-LSM, Rapid Update Cycle Model LSM | longwave: RRTM, Eta GFDL, shortwave: MM5 Dudhia, Goddard, Eta GFDL | Kessler, Purdue Lin, WRF Single Moment 3-class (WSM3), WSM5, WSM6, ETA grid-scale cloud and precipitation | |||

WRF/Chem | level 2.5 MYJ, or non local YSU scheme | Grell and Devenyi, Betts-Miller, Kain Fritsch, Simplified Arakawa-Schubert, Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert | Noah Land Surface model, or RUC Land Surface Model, or simple schemes | GFDL, Goddard, Dudhia, or CAM radiation schemes. Goddard scheme is coupled to aerosols | Many microphysics Choices |

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