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Summary table: Boundary Conditions

surfacetoplateral inflowlateral outflow
ADREAThe concept of surface layer func-tions is adopted to avoid an excessive number of meshes near the ground due to very steep parameter gradients, occurring at the region.
ALADIN/Asurface pressure, orography, surface temperature and relative moisture contents, deep soil temperature and moisture contents, snow cover, albedo, emissivity, land sea mask, proportion of vegetation, roughness length, standard deviation, anisotropy and orientation of sub-grid scale orography.wind, temperature, specific humidity
ALADIN/PLsurface pressure, orography, surface temperature and relative moisure contents, snow cover, albedo, emissivity, land sea mask, proportion of vegetation, roughness lenght, standard deviation, anisotropy and orientation of sub-grid scale orographywind, temperature, specyfic humidity
ARPSLand surface scheme De Ridder and Schayes (1997)Rigid lid, Rayleigh damping.Relaxation to large-scale fields (nesting)Relaxation to large-scale fields (nesting)
BOLCHEMSurface model usedNo vertical motion condition at the topRelaxation conditionRelaxation condition
CALMET/CALPUFF
CALMET/CAMx
CLMDigital-Filter initialization of unbalanced initial states (Lynch et al., 1997) with options for adiabatic and diabatic initialization.Options for rigid lid condition and Rayleigh damping layer.1-way nesting by Davies-type lateral boundary formulation. Data from several coarse-grid models can be processed (GME, IFS, LM). Option for periodic boundary conditions.
COSMO-2Friction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance.Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances.Interpolation from ECMWF global model IFS, with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity
COSMO-7Friction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance. Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances. Interpolation from ECMWF global model IFS, with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity.
COSMO-CLMDigital-Filter initialization of unbalanced initial states (Lynch et al., 1997) with options for adiabatic and diabatic initialization.Options for rigid lid condition and Rayleigh damping layer.1-way nesting by Davies-type lateral boundary formulation. Data from several coarse-grid models can be processed (GME, IFS, LM). Option for periodic boundary conditions.
COSMO-MUSCATFriction boundary conditions for constant-flux layer with surface budget Free slip (vanishing vertical velocity and gradients)Relaxation conditions forcing adaption to profiles of outer-nest model or to reanalysis data of global model GME (within a zone of few cells at each lateral boundary)Same as lateral inflow
ENVIRO-HIRLAMSurface analysisClimate filesu,v,t,q,psu,v,t,q,ps
GEM-AQland-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo
GESIMAno-slip, energy-budget, land-use parametersrigid lid with sponge layerspecified values from synoptic background fieldsOrlanski-type radiating b.c.
GMESST from analysis fixed during model integrationmodel top at 10hPanone (global model)none (global model)
Hirlamprescibed SST ECMWF boundary condition filesECMWF boundary condition files
LAMIfriction boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance.Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances.interpolation from DWD's global model GME,with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables.
LMEfriction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance. Rayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances. interpolation from DWD's global model GME,with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity.
LME_MHsee LME model documentation see LME model documentation see LME model documentation see LME model documentation
M-SYSSeveral options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing dataTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary conditionTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition
MC2-AQvarious geophysical and climatological fields (land-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo)rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model toptime varying meteorological fields coming either from global model (GEM-AQ) results or from objective anaysis
MCCMSoil model
MEMO (UoT-GR)The lower boundary coincides with the ground (or, more precisely, a height above ground corresponding to its aerodynamic roughness). For the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation, inhomogeneous Neumann conditions are imposed. All otheNeumann for the horizontal velocity components and the potential temperature. To ensure non-reflectivity, a radiative condition is used for the hydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. For the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure Radiation conditions for u,v,w, potential temperature and pressure. For the nonhydrostatic mesoscale pressure perturbation, homogeneous Neumann conditions are used.see above
MEMO (UoA-PT)The lower boundary coincides with the ground. For mesoscale pressure perturbation, inhomogeneous Neumann consitions are imposed. All other consitions at the lower boundary follow the onin-Obukhov similarity theory.Neumann boundary conditions are imposed for horizontal velocity components and potential temperature. For the mesoscale pressure perturbation homogeneous staggered Dirichlet conditions are impose. Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.Homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.
MERCUREsurface exchange parameterization (two layer model; cf. above)- prescribed large scale flow - optional absorbing layer- standard Dirichlet - optional absorbing layer- standard Neuman - optional absorbing layer
METRASSeveral options (constant values, surface energy budgets, constant fluxes)rigid lid, damping layers; towards forcing dataTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary conditionTowards forcing data (relaxation area) or modified radiation boundary condition
METRAS-PCLconstant values or budget equationrigid with damping layers
MM5 (UoA-GR)The LOWBDY_DOMAINx file provides sea-surface temperature, substrate temperature, and optionally snow cover and sea-ice. The switch ISSTVAR allows multiple times in this file (created by INTERPF) to be read in as the model runs, which is the method of updating these fields in long-term simulations. - No upper boundary condition - Rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model top. This may be preferable for very coarse mesh simulations (50 km or more grids). 1. Upper radiative condition - Top vertical motion calculated to reduce reflection of energy from the model top preventing some spurious noise or energy build-up over topography. This is recommended for grid-lengths below 50 km. It works better for hydrostatic gravity wave scales, rather than inertial or nonhydrostatic scales. 1 - Fixed 2 - Time-dependent/Nest Outer two rows and columns have specified values of all predicted fields. Recommended for nests where time-dependent values are supplied by the parent domain. Not recommended for coarse mesh where only one outer row and column would be specified. 3 - Relaxation/inflow-outflow Outer row and column is specified by time-dependent value, next four points are relaxed towards the boundary values with a relaxation constant that decreases linearly away from the boundary.several options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditions
MM5 (UoA-PT)The LOWBDY_DOMAINx file provides sea-surface temperature, substrate temperature, and optionally snow cover and sea-ice. The switch ISSTVAR allows multiple times in this file (created by INTERPF) to be read in as the model runs, which is the method of updating these fields in long-term simulations. - No upper boundary condition - Rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model top. This may be preferable for very coarse mesh simulations (50 km or more grids). 1. Upper radiative condition - Top vertical motion calculated to reduce reflection of energy from the model top preventing some spurious noise or energy build-up over topography. This is recommended for grid-lengths below 50 km. It works better for hydrostatic gravity wave scales, rather than inertial or nonhydrostatic scales. 1 - Fixed 2 - Time-dependent/Nest Outer two rows and columns have specified values of all predicted fields. Recommended for nests where time-dependent values are supplied by the parent domain. Not recommended for coarse mesh where only one outer row and column would be specified. 3 - Relaxation/inflow-outflow Outer row and column is specified by time-dependent value, next four points are relaxed towards the boundary values with a relaxation constant that decreases linearly away from the boundary.
MM5 (UoH-UK)Many options are available: single slab with fixed-temperature substrate or five layer soil model base on the 'force-restore' method developed by Blackadar;Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface Model;Noah Land-Surface ModelRadiative boundary conditionsseveral options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditionsseveral options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditions
MM5(GKSS-D)4 options avalaible. AT GKSS NOAH land surface model with 4 layers is used. radiative boundary conditionstime dependent values in one outer row and column for the coarse mesh. Two outer rows and columns are used for nests. Several outer meteorology data sets can be used for lateral boundary conditions. At GKSS, ERA40 data is used. Depends on variables prescribed at the boundaries. Variables which are not specified by the outer meteorology fields are zero on inflow and zero grdaient on outflow.
Meso-NHGiven by the externalized surface modelRigid For the coarser model, open boundary conditions with radiative properties from the LS coupling model. For the inner models, interpolation from the coarser grid.Radiative open boundary conditions
NHHIRLAMno condition or weak spongeDavies, 1976Davies, 1976
RAMSSVAT model (LEAF-2)Rayleigh friction absorbing layer.Klemp and Wilhelmson scheme.Klemp and Wilhelmson
RCG
SAIMMno-slip condition (u=v=0) is specified for the horizontal velocities. For the vertical velocity, the lower boundary condition is always w*=0. The temperature at the ground surface is predicted from an energy balance through a Newton-Raphson iterative technique.the upper boundary is an isentropic surface with no horizontal velocity perturbation from the basic state.zero-gradient lateral boundary conditions are imposed on all prognostic variables--
TAPMThe soil and vegetation parameterisations are based on those from Kowalczyk et al. (1991).At the model top boundary, all variables are set at their synoptic values.One-way nested lateral boundary conditions are used for the prognostic equations.
UMNo slip or free slip in dynamics, no slip via PBL.w=0Davies relaxationDavies relaxation
WRF-ARW
WRF/ChemSST'smass coordinateAnalysis data from operational centers, or 1-way nesting, also forecasts from operational centers
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