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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

MERCURE: Mercure_Saturne

General information

Model name and version

short nameMERCURE
full nameMercure_Saturne
revision1.1
date11/2005
last change

Responsible for this information

nameMUSSON-GENON
instituteCEREA (ENPC-EDF R&D)
address6 Quai Watier
zip78401
cityCHATOU Cedex
countryFrance
phone+33 1 30 87 81 18
fax+33 1 30 87 71 08
e-mailluc.musson-genon(belongs-to)edf.fr

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameBertrand Carissimo
instituteCEREA (ENPC-EDF R&D)
divisions
street6 Quai Watier
zip78401
cityCHATOU Cedex
countryFrance
phone+33 1 30 87 76 15
emailcarissim@cerea.enpc.fr
fax+33 1 30 87 71 08

Model developer and model user

developer and userThis model has been developped by EDF R&D since 1985 and by the CEREA since 2003. This local scale meteorological model has been developped around a CFD kernel code developped by another division of EDF R&D (Code_Saturne) This model model is used by approximately 20 teams in France, in Italy, USA Japan and Australia

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other useprojected operational use in Paris area

Model code available?

is available?yes
more detailsfree for academic research

Minimum computer resources required

typeLinux workstation
time needed for run1 hour (simple case)
storage100 Mb

Further information

documentation- general reference guide (in French) - radiative scheme description - ground parameterization - microphysical scheme description
model references- Troude F., E. Dupont, B. Carissimo and A.I. Flossmann, 2001 : Mesoscale Meteorological Simulations in Paris : comparison with the observations during the ECLAP Experiment. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 99, 21-51 - Carissimo B., E. Dupont and O. Marchand, 1996 : Local simulations of land-sea breez cycles in Athens based on large-scale operational analyses. Atmospheric Environment. 15, 2691-2704. - Elkhalfi A. and B. Carissimo, 1993 : Numerical simulations of a mountain Wave Observed during the 'Pyrenees Experiment' : Hydrostatic/non hydrostatic comparison and time evolution. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., 66, 183-200.
webpagehttp://www.enpc.fr/cerea/en/axes.html
additional informationtechnical contact : B. CARISSIMO bertrand.carissimo@cerea.enpc.fr

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

PrognosticDiagnostic
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables iconcentration in pollutants, including heavy gaz
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gases
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarks

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarkstakes into account topography but not earth curvature

Parametrizations

Meteorology

turbulence schemedifferent levels can be used : E-eps (standard and Duynkerke), E-L (Bougeault-Lacarrere), L (Louis, 1979)
deep convectionexplicit resolution
surface exchangeMonin-Obukhov similarity and Louis (1982)-ECMWF formulation
surface temperatureForce-resore method inspired by Deardorff (1978)
surface humidityidem (two layers model)
radiationsolar : derived from Lacis-Hansen (1974), including simulated cloud and cloudy fraction and aerosol evolutions infra-red : based on emissivity approximation Musson-Genon (1987) for both schemes, gaseous absorbent are : H2O and its dimeres, O3, CO2 and aerosols
unresolved orographic dragexplicitly resolved
radiation in vegetationNA
radiation between obstaclesexplicit 3D resolution of the radiative transfer between obstacles (separate solar direct, diffuse and IR) based on a scheme developped for combustion applications (under development)
treatment of obstaclesexplicit (complex geometry mesh)
clouds / raintwo moment semi-spectral warm microphysical scheme, including interaction with turbulent scheme (Bouzereau, 2004)
remarks

Chemistry & transport

photolysis rate
dry deposition
wet deposition
remarksurban canopy can be parameterized using a porosity drag approach

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)
wet phase chemistry (give details)
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
other
nucleation
coagulation
condensation
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical properties
give details

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transport
meteorology- from radio sounding - interpolation from large scale model fields - use of an objective analysis pre-processing for field campaign (MINERVE code)

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyIGN, French Geography Institute
land useLandsat or other
obstaclesIGN
vegetationIGN
meteorology- ECMWF - Meteo-France (ARPEGE, ALADIN, MESO-NH) - MM5
concentrations
emissions
remarks

Data assimilation

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
detailsnudging also used for 'Davies' type lateral boundary conditions

Boundary conditions

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
surfacesurface exchange parameterization (two layer model; cf. above)
top- prescribed large scale flow - optional absorbing layer
lateral inflow- standard Dirichlet - optional absorbing layer
lateral outflow- standard Neuman - optional absorbing layer

Nesting

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchangeevery
explain method- unstructured mesh allow for solving directly on the nested domains - only the largest nesting is one way
variables nestedall
otherunstructured mesh

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksunstructured mesh

Numeric

Meteorology

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
other

Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsfinite volume, cell centered
scalar quantitiesidem
additional informationpossibility to use different cell elements (tetrahedral, hexahedral...)
other

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantities
additional information
other
chemistry solver

Model resolution

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max5500
min0.0010.1

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max
min

Domain size

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max10011000
min0.150

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max
min

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts

Analytic solutions

Meteorology

u
v
w
T
qv
qlc
qsc
qlr
zi
other
testcase description
testcase references
used data set
reference for evaluation
remarks- analytical Sea Breeze - mountain waves

Chemistry & transport

SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
other
testcase description
testcase references
used data set
reference for evaluation
remarks

Evaluated reference dataset

Meteorology

u
v
w
T
qv
qlc
qsc
qlr
zi
otherTKE, droplet spectra, surface flux
testcase description
testcase references
used data set
reference for evaluation
remarks- diurnal cycle of boundary layer (Wangara) - marine boundary layer - urban heat island (Paris, Athenes) - mountain waves (PYREX) - cooling tower plumes (Bugey) - fog modelisation (Cabauw)

Chemistry & transport

SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
other
testcase description
testcase references
used data set
reference for evaluation
remarks
remarks

Application examples

application examples- Bouzereau E. 2004 : Implementation of a microphysical scheme for warm clouds in the meteorological model MERCURE : application to cooling tower plumes and to orographic precipitation. PhD Thesis, Paris VI University Pierre et Marie Curie - Carissimo B. and R.W. Macdonald, 2002 : A porosity/drag approach for the modeling of flow and dispersion in the urban canopy, in Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications XV, Carlos Borrego and Guy Schayes ed., Kluwer Academic. - Troude F., E. Dupont, B. Carissimo and A.I. Flossmann, 2001 : Mesoscale Meteorological Simulations in Paris : comparison with the observations during the ECLAP Experiment. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 99, 21-51 - Carissimo B., E. Dupont and O. Marchand, 1996 : Local simulations of land-sea breez cycles in Athens based on large-scale operational analyses. Atmospheric Environment. 15, 2691-2704. - Elkhalfi A. and B. Carissimo, 1993 : Numerical simulations of a mountain Wave Observed during the 'Pyrenees Experiment' : Hydrostatic/non hydrostatic comparison and time evolution. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., 66, 183-200.

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)