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EURAD-IM: EURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model extension

General information

Model name and version

short nameEURAD-IM
full nameEURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model extension
revision4.2
date2007
last change

Responsible for this information

nameHendrik Elbern
instituteRheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung
addressAachener Str. 201-209
zip50931
cityCologne
countryGermany
phone+492214002258
fax+492214002320
e-mailhe(belongs-to)eurad.uni-koeln.de

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameHendrik Elbern
instituteRheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung
divisionsAachener Str. 201-209
streetAachener Str. 201-209
zip50931
cityCologne
countryGermany
phone+492214002258
emailhe(belongs-to)eurad.uni-koeln.de
fax+492214002320

Model developer and model user

developer and userDeveloper: H. Elbern and Chemical Data Assimilation group of RIU

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarksComprehensive input data links are neccessary.

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?no
more detailsThe model code of the EURAD basic version is available.

Minimum computer resources required

typeLINUX PC cluster
time needed for run15 minutes up to several hours for 24 hours model simulation
storageUp to 1 GB for 24 hours model simulation

Further information

documentation
model referencesHass, H., Description of the EURAD Chemistry-Transport-Model version2 (CTM2), vol 83, Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie der Universität zu Köln, 1991. Ackermann, I.J., H. Hass, M. Memmesheimer, A. Ebel, F.S. Binkowski, and U. Shankar, MADE: Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe; development and first applications, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2981-2999, 1998. Elbern, H. and H. Schmidt, A four-dimensional variational chemistry data assimilation scheme for Eulerian chemistry transport modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 104, (D15), 18,583-18,598, 1999.
webpagehttp://www.eurad.uni-koeln.de
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

Input data
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gasesBVOC
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity222Rn, 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarks

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarks

Parametrizations

Chemistry & transport

photolysis rateThe calculation of photolysis frequencies is based on Madronich (1987). Actinic fluxes are calculated from a radiative transfer model based on the delta-Eddington technique for a grid of 130 spectral intervals from 1 to 10 nm. The height from the surface of the earth to the top of the atmosphere is divided into 50 layers. The product of the absorption cross sections, the quantum yields (http://www.iupac-kinetic.ch.cam.ac.uk) and the actinic flux is integrated over the spectral range to produce a table of clear sky photolysis rates. Photolysis frequencies are not calculated for each grid, height and time but extracted from a coarser data block by linear interpolation. For cloudy conditions, clear sky photolysis rates within the cloud layers are multiplied by a correction factor depending on the cloud fractional coverage and the cloud optical thickness. Madronich, S.,J. Geophys. Res., 92, 9740-9752, 1987.
dry depositionDry deposition velocities of 15 gas-phase species are calculated using a resistance model which considers the aerodynamic resistance, the quasi-laminar layer resistance, and a land use dependent canopy resistance (Walcek et al., 1986). The dry deposition of aerosol-phase species is treated size dependent. For each of the three lognormal modes used within the EURAD-IM the process of dry deposition is parameterized using a resistance model (Ackermann et al., 1998). Different gravitational settling velocities are used for each mode. Ackermann, I.J., H. Hass, M. Memmesheimer, A. Ebel, F.S. Binkowski, and U. Shankar, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2981-2999, 1998. Walcek, C.J., R.A. Brost, J.S. Chang, and M.L. Wesely, Atmos. Environ., 20, 949-964, 1986.
wet depositionGas-phase: Henrys law equilibria for all prognostic species. Aerosol-phase (Binkowski, 1999): The accumulation mode particles form cloud condensation nuclei and are 100% absorbed into the cloud water. The Aitken mode forms interstitual aerosol which is scavenged by cloud droplets. The wet removal of aerosol is proportional to the wet removal of sulfate. Binkowski, F.S., Aerosols in Models-3 CMAQ, in: Science algorithms of the EPA Models-3 Community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system, EPA 600/R-99-030, EPA, 1999.
remarks

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)Several gas-phase chemical mechanisms can be used within the EURAD-IM: 1) RADM2 (Stockwell el al., 1990) 2) RACM (Stockwell et al., 1997) 3) RACM-MIM (Geiger et. al, 2003) RACM-MIM is an update of the RACM chemistry mechanism which involves a condensed version of the Mainz isoprene mechanism (MIM) for the tropospheric oxidation of isoprene. 4) Euro-RADM (Stockwell and Kley) The Euro-RADM chemical mechanism was developed to model European atmospheric chemistry. It is based upon the Regional Acid Deposition Model mechanism, version 2 (RADM2). 5) CHEST (Lippert et al., 1996) CHEST treats the most important chemical processes of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. It contains a condensed version of the RADM2 mechanism. Geiger, H., I. Barnes, I. Bejan, T. Benter, and M. Spttler, Atmos. Environ., 37, 1503-1519, 2003. Lippert, E., J. Hendricks, and H. Petry, Proc. of the Int. Colloq.: Impact of Aircraft Emissions upon the Atmosphere, 15.-18. October, Paris, ONERA, 545-550, 1996. Stockwell, W.R., P. Middleton, and J.S. Chang, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16343-16367, 1990. Stockwell, W.R., F. Kirchner, M. Kuhn, and S. Seefeld, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25847-25879, 1997. Stockwell, W.R. and D. Kley, The Euro-RADM mechanism. A gas-phase chemical mechanism for European air quality studies, technical report, Institut für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre 2: Chemie der belasteten Atmosphäre.
wet phase chemistry (give details)The cloud scheme in the EURAD-IM was derived from the diagnostic cloud model in RADM version 2.6 (Dennis et al., 1993; Walcek and Taylor, 1986). In this model the effects of sub-grid clouds on pollutant concentrations are parameterized by modeling the vertical mixing, scavenging, aqueous chemistry and wet deposition of a 'representative cloud' within a grid cell. For all sub-grid clouds a 1-hour lifetime has been assumed. Averaged values over the vertical extent of the cloud are used for the bulk treatment of aqueous-phase chemistry. Some rapidly established equilibria between gas and aqueous-phase (HNO3, N2O5, NH3, O3, H2O2, SO2, formic acid, methyl hydrogene peroxide, and peroxy acetic acid) are superimposed on 5 irreversible reactions (H2O2, O3, methyl hydrogene peroxide, O2 catalysed by iron and manganese, and peroyx acetic acid) involved in the conversion of S(IV) to S(VI). Contributions from gases and aerosols are separately treated following Binkowski (1999). All new sulfate produced in the aqueous-phase changes the accumulation mode mass. Binkowski, F.S., Aerosols in Models-3 CMAQ, in: Science algorithms of the EPA Models-3 Community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system, EPA 600/R-99-030, EPA, 1999. Dennis, R.L., J.N. Mc Henry, W.R. Barchet, F.S. Binkowski, and D.W. Byun, Atmos. Environ., 26, 975-997, 1993. Walcek, C.J. and G.R. Taylor, J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 339-355, 1986.
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
other
nucleation
coagulation
condensation
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical properties
give detailsThe aerosol dynamics model MADE (Ackermann et al., 1998) is used to provide information on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. Fine particles smaller then about 2.5 micrometers are treated by two interacting lognormal modes. The coarse particles form a third mode. The two smaller modes interact with each other through coagulation. Each mode may growth through condensation of gaseous precursurs. The aerosol species treated in the two fine particle modes are secondary anorganic aerosols, primary and elemental carbon, other unspecified material of anthropogenic origin, and anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic species (Schell et al., 2001). Two modules are available for the treatment of the equilibrium chemistry in the system H* -- NH4* -- NO3- -- SO4-- - H2O: 1) RPMARES (Binkowski and Shankar, 1995) 2) A High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) of an aerosol chemistry module which accurately predicts activity coefficients based on the ion interaction approach (Clegg et al., 1992) The coarse particles consist of unspecified material of anthropogenic origin, sea salt (Monahan et al., 1986; Martensson, 2003), and mineral dust (Nickovic et al., 2001). Ackermann, I.J., H. Hass, M. Memmesheimer, A. Ebel, F.S. Binkowski, and U. Shankar, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2981-2999, 1998. Binkowski, F.S. and. U. Shankar, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 26191-26209, 1995. Clegg, S.L., K.S. Pitzer, and P. Brimblecombe, J. Phys. Chem., 96, 9470-9479, 1992. Martensson, E.M., E.D. Nilsson, G. de Leeuw, L.H. Cohen, and H.-C. Hansson, J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002263. Monahan, E.C., D.E. Spiel, and K.L. Davidson, in: Oceanic Whitecaps, E.C. Monahan and G. Mac Niocaill eds., 167-174, D. Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1986. Nickovic, S., G. Kallos, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18113-18129, 2001. Schell, B., I.J. Ackermann, H. Hass, F.S. Binkowski, and A. Ebel, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28275-28293, 2001.

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transportThree different data sources are available for the initialisation of the EURAD-IM: 1) Climatological profiles. Nested grids can be initialized by linear interpolation of output from a coarser model simulation. 2) Concentration fields from a preceeding model run. 3) Initial values optimized by 3- and 4-d variational data assimilation.
meteorology

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyUSGS
land useUSGS version 2 land cover data, USGS Olson codes
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyAll meteorological input data are provided by MM5 Version 3 simulations.
concentrationsData from the following sources are used for the various assimilation techniques: - In situ data from the EEA and from various national environmental protection agencies for NO2, SO2, O3, NO, and CO - Aircraft based MOZAIC data for O3 and CO - SCIAMACHY NO2 tropospheric columns from KNMI - MIPAS upper tropospheric NO3, O3, and HNO3 profiles from IMK and ESA - MOPITT tropospheric CO profiles - GOME tropospheric O3 profiles from NNorsy - GOME tropospheric O3 columns from KNMI - campaign data
emissionsEmission data are provided by the following institutions/databases: 1) EMEP 2) TNO 3) EDGAR 4) LANUV (Northrine-Westfalia environmental agency) (used for the highest resolution) For a description of EURAD emission model (EEM) see Memmesheimer, M., J. Tippke, A. Ebel, H. Hass, H. Jakobs, and M. Laube, On the use of EMEP emission inventories for european scale air pollution modelling with the EURAD model, in: Proceedings of the EMEP workshop on photooxidant modelling for long-range transport in relation to abatement strategies, Berlin 1991, pp. 307-321.
remarks

Data assimilation

Chemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
detailsSee - Elbern et al. 2007, ACPD. - http://db.eurad.uni-koeln.de/prognose/promote/dasys_descr.pdf - http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/volltexte/2007/1942/

Boundary conditions

Chemistry & transport
surfaceDry depostion and sedimentation velocities are incorporated into the vertical diffusion equation for the lowest model layer. This boundary condition describes the removal of species by physical encounter with the underlying surface. Gas and aerosol emission fluxes enter the model.
toprigid lid
lateral inflowPrescribed advective flux given by the product of the boundary value and the component of the horizontal velocity perpendicular to the lateral boundary.
lateral outflowAdvective flux correction to prevent the reflection of high wavenumber oscillations at the lateral boundary.

Nesting

Chemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchangeone hour
explain methodThe hourly output of all prognostic variables from a coarser grid model simulation is spatial and temporal linear interpolated and used for initial and boundary values in the fine grid model run.
variables nestedall prognostic variables
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksThe polar stereographic and Mercator projections are also available.

Numeric

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantitiesCentered differences are used for the spatial discretization.
additional information
other
chemistry solverThe kinetic preprocessor KPP (Sandu et al., 2003; Sandu and Sander, 2006) is incorporated into the EURAD-IM. Taking a set of chemical reactions and their rate coefficients as input, KPP generates the code for the temporal integration of the kinetic system. Efficiency is obtained by exploiting the sparsity structures of the Jacobian and the Hessian. KPP generates the adjoint model of the chemical system. The Rosenbrock methods Ros-2, Ros-3, Rodas-3, Ros-4 and Rodas-4 can be used as stiff numerical integrators. Ros-2 is the preferred integrator. Sandu, A., D. N. Daescu, and G.R. Carmichael, Atmos. Environ., 37, 5083-5096, 2003. Sandu, A. and R. Sander, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 187-195, 2006.

Model resolution

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max25035
min135

Domain size

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max4000016000
min3016000

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examplesJakobs, H. J., H. Feldmann, H. Hass and M. Memmesheimer, The use of nested models for air pollution studies: An application of the EURAD model to a SANA episode, J. Appl. Meteor., 34, (6), 1301-1319, 1995. Elbern, H., H. Schmidt and A. Ebel, Variational data assimilation for tropospheric chemistry modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 102, (D13), 15,967-15,985, 1997. Elbern, H. and H. Schmidt, Ozone episode analysis by four-dimensional variational chemistry data assimilation, J. Geophys. Res., D4, (106), 3569-3590, 2001. Memmesheimer, M., E. Friese, A. Ebel, H. J. Jakobs, H. Feldmann, C. Kessler and G. Piekorz, Long-term simulations of particulate matter in Europe on different scales using sequential nesting of a regional model, Int. J. Environm. and Pollution, 22, (1-2), 108-132, 2004. Elbern, H., Strunk, A., Schmidt, H., Talagrand, O., Emission rate and chemical state estimation by 4-dimensional variational inversion, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Disc., 7, 1725-1783, 2007.

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)