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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

OsloCTM2: Oslo Chemical Transport Model, version 2

General information

Model name and version

short nameOsloCTM2
full nameOslo Chemical Transport Model, version 2
revision
dateOctober 2006
last change

Responsible for this information

nameOle Amund Søvde
instituteCICERO
address
zip
city
country
phone
fax
e-mailasovde(belongs-to)cicero.oslo.no

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameOle Amund Søvde
instituteCICERO
divisions
street
zip
city
country
phone
emailasovde(belongs-to)cicero.oslo.no
fax

Model developer and model user

developer and userOle Amund Søvde, Stig B. Dalsøren, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Marianne T. Lund, Øivind Hodnebrog, Bjørg Rognerud, Terje K. Berntsen. Earlier developers/users: Alf Grini, Michael Gauss, Tore Berglen.

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?no
more details

Minimum computer resources required

type
time needed for run
storage

Further information

documentation
model referencesBerglen, T.F., T.K. Berntsen, I.S.A. Isaksen, J. K. Sundet, A global model of the coupled sulfur/oxidant chemistry in the troposphere: The sulfur cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 109 (19), doi:10.1029/2003JD003948, 2004. Isaksen I.S.A., C.S. Zerefos, K. Kourtidis, C. Meleti, S.B. Dalsoren, J.K. Sundet, A. Grini, P. Zanis, D. Balis, Tropospheric ozone changes at unpolluted and semipolluted regions induced by stratospheric ozone changes, J. Geophys. Res., 110 (2), doi: 10.1029/2004JD004618, 2005. Myhre, G.; T. F. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. R. Hoyle, T. K. Berntsen, S. A. Christopher, D. W. Fahey, I. S. A. Isaksen, T. A. Jones R. A. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, J. P. Schwarz, and K. E. Yttri: Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1365 - 1392, doi:10.5194/acp-9-1365-2009, 2009. Søvde, O. A., M, Gauss, S. Smyshlyaev, and I. S. A. Isaksen: Evaluation of the chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 with focus on Arctic winter ozone depletion. J. Geophys. Res., vol. 113, D09304, doi:10.1029/2007JD009240, 2008.
webpage
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

Input data
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gases
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarks

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarks

Parametrizations

Chemistry & transport

photolysis rateFast-J2
dry depositionWesely 1989
wet deposition
remarks

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)98 chemical species, QSSA method
wet phase chemistry (give details)
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
other
nucleation
coagulation
condensation
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical properties
give details

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transportThe model can start from either a restart file containing a full snapshot of tracer variables, or from a monthly mean field. For HTAP model runs a spin-up of 6 months is choosen, with initial files from previous multi-year runs
meteorology

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orography
land use
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyForecast meteorology from ECMWF-IFS, 3-hourly resolution. Different cycles are available.
concentrations
emissionsLightning emissions based on Price 1997, scaled to 5 Tg(N)/year. Horizontal distribution based on convection in ECMWF meteorological data. Aircraft emissions: NASA 1992, scaled up to 2000 conditions, 0.7 Tg(N)/year. Surface emissions of CO, NOx, and VOC based on EDGAR3.2, RETRO, and POET. http://retro.enes.org/ Total emissions in the CTM are: CO: Vegetation/oceans 179.98 Tg(CO)/yr Biomass burning 308.64 Tg(CO)/yr Biofuel 237.27 Tg(CO)/yr Fossil fuel 273.97 Tg(CO)/yr Industry 35.7 Tg(CO)/yr Total 1035.56 Tg(CO)/yr NOx: Vegetation 8.011 Tg(N)/yr Biomass burning 5.843 Tg(N)/yr Biofuel 2.412 Tg(N)/yr Fossil fuel 25.551 Tg(N)/yr Industry 2.008 Tg(N)/yr Total 43.825 Tg(N)/yr VOC: Vegetations+oceans 535.23 Tg(C)/yr Biomass burning 46.23 Tg(C)/yr Biofuel 26.16 Tg(C)/yr Fossil fuel+Industry 30.89 Tg(C)/yr Ship 2.03 Tg(VOC)/yr Added VOC emission in CTM2 for components not treated in POET: 73.95 Tg(VOC)/yr Speciation based on IPCC-TAR Ch.4 Total VOC emissions (Tg(C)/yr): Isoprene 501.52 Ethane 10.39 Propane 11.94 Butanes+Pentanes as Butane 119.76 Hexanes as Hexane 27.08 Ethene 15.39 Propene+other alkenes as Propene 6.24 Aromatics as m-xylene 16.11 Formaldehyde 3.94 Acetone 40.63 Sulphur components: Berglen, T.F., T.K. Berntsen, I.S.A. Isaksen, J. K. Sundet, A global model of the coupled sulfur/oxidant chemistry in the troposphere: The sulfur cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 109 (19), doi:10.1029/2003JD003948, 2004.
remarks

Data assimilation

Chemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
details

Boundary conditions

Chemistry & transport
surfaceLong-lived species which are not treated in the tropospheric chemistry, are set from Oslo 2-D model, based on WMO recommendations.
topOslo 2-D model
lateral inflow
lateral outflow

Nesting

Chemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchange
explain method
variables nested
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksvertical: sigma-pressure hybrid coordinate

Numeric

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantitiesDefault is gaussian T42N32 (~2.8x2.8 degrees) in 60 vertical layers (L60). Can also be run in T159N80 (~1.125x1.125 degrees). Native resolution of meteorology is T319N160 (~0.56x0.56 degrees), but no attempt has been done in calculating chemistry in that resolution. Earlier meteorology spanned 40 vertical levels, and also had 1x1 as possible resolution. That was not chosen for HTAP due to CPU limitation.
additional information
other
chemistry solverQSSA, solution depending on time scale of reaction

Model resolution

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max320x160 gridpoints (T159N80)15000m (model top layer)
min128x64 gridpoints (T42N32)16m (at surface)

Domain size

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
maxglobalL60: Model top at 0.02hPa (~75km), mid-point at 0.11hPa (~65km). L40: Model top at 2hPa (~42km), mid-point at 11hPa (~32km).
minglobalsurface

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examples

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)