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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

FARM: FARM (Flexible Air quality Regional Model)

General information

Model name and version

short nameFARM
full nameFARM (Flexible Air quality Regional Model)
revision4.3
dateFebruary 2013
last change

Responsible for this information

nameGiuseppe Calori
instituteARIANET
addressvia Gilino 9
zip20128
cityMilano
countryItaly
phone
fax
e-mailg.calori(belongs-to)aria-net.it

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameGiuseppe Calori & Camillo Silibello
instituteARIANET
divisions
streetvia Gilino 9
zip20128
cityMilano
countryItaly
phone
emailg.calori@aria-net.it c.silibello@aria-net.it
fax

Model developer and model user

developer and userDevelopers: ARIANET, CINECA (parallelization) Users: national and local agencies, research institutes (test and development)

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?yes
more detailsAvailable on request; please check with the specified contact persons

Minimum computer resources required

typeWindows/Linux PC or Unix machine, with (optional) MPI
time needed for runApplication-dependent; typically around 1-2 hours / day in serial mode (OpenMP, MPI and hybrid parallelizations also available)
storageApplication-dependent; typically around 20-100 MB / day

Further information

documentationModel formulation and user manual
model referencesSilibello C., Calori G., Brusasca G., Giudici A., Angelino E., Fossati G., Peroni E., Buganza E., Degiarde E. (2005) Modelling of PM10 concentrations over Milano urban area: validation and sensitivity analysis of different aerosol modules. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005. De Maria R., Cascone C. Motta F., Picollo M.E., Clemente M., Bande S., Muraro M., Lollobrigida F., Silibello C. (2005) Simulation of a summer ozone episode: influence of emission resolution and initial/boundary conditions. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005.
webpagehttp://www.aria-net.it/front/ENG/codes/modules.php
additional informationThe code is embedded in ARIA Regional, a comprehensive regional atmospheric simulation system, including orography, land-use, meteo, emissions and IC/BC pre-processors, some of which have a GUI. In FARM, through a initialization file the user can manage modules activation, calculation and output options for each individual species. Post-processor and interface with visualization tools (AVISU, Savi3D, GrADS, Vis5D) help with the interpretation of model output.

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

Input data
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gases
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarksAdditional arbitrary tracers can be also added

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarks

Parametrizations

Chemistry & transport

photolysis rateOn-line calculation using TUV code (Madronich, 1987), taking into account the effects of aerosols and gaseous species.
dry depositionDeposition velocity depending on land type, season, surface meteorology, surface wetness, by means of a \'big leaf\' resistance model after Walcek (1986) and Wesley (1989)
wet depositionPrecipitation scavenging based on Maul (1980)
remarksClouds: from the meteo driver

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)Gas-Phase: flexible mechanism, assigned KPP chemical pre-processor (Kinetic PreProcessor; Damian et al, 2002; Daeuscu et al 2003; Sandu et al 2003, 2006); currently adopted: SAPRC-99 (Carter, 2000), adapted EMEP-acid (Hov et al., 1988), ), POP (Persistent Organic Pollutants, Gusev et al., 2005; Seigneur et al., 1998); Hg according to Yarwood et al., 2003
wet phase chemistry (give details)In-cloud sulphur oxidation; Hg aqueous phase chemical equilibria and kinetic according to Yarwood et al., 2003
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
other
nucleationHomogeneous nucleation in the sulfuric acid-water system, calculated by the method given in Kulmala et al., 1998
coagulationFollowing Whitby et al., 1991 and Binkowski and Shankar, 1995
condensationInorganic: ISORROPIA model (Nenes et al., 1998) Secondary organic aerosol (SOA): based on the absorptive partitioning model of Pankow, 1994, extended by Odum et al., 1996 POPs aerosol-gas partitioning: adsorption and absorption according to Junge-Pankow
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical propertiesAOD estimation
give detailsBased on the aerosol module (aero3) implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system (Binkowski, 1999); three modes (Aitken, accumulation, coarse)

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transportGridded IC from coarser models runs and/or measurements
meteorology

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyFrom raster databases, through pre-processor
land useFrom raster/vector databases (e.g. CORINE, USGS), through pre-processors
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyHourly 2D/3D fields can be provided (through the GAP grid adaptor) by a wide series of diagnostic/prognostic meteorological models; among the others have been used: RAMS, MM5, Lokal-Modell, WRF, SWIFT, CALMET
concentrations3D IC and time-varying BC either from measurements or either from measurements or coarser model grid results (FARM itself or other models), throught the use of companion pre-processors
emissions2D/3D hourly emissions at each grid location. Optionally, a set of point sources can be assigned; plume rise and grid cells allocation are then computed by the model. Emissions from an arbitrary set of tracers can be also considered. Emissions input from available inventories can be prepared with Emission Manager pre-processors (spatialization, time modulation, NMVOC & PM speciation)
remarksDeposition velocities, horizontal and vertical diffusivities can be estimated from base meteo fields and land-cover using from SURFPRO pre-processor

Data assimilation

Chemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
details

Boundary conditions

Chemistry & transport
surfaceTime-varying deposition velocities fields
topTime-varying (either hourly or climatological) fields
lateral inflowTime-varying (either hourly or climatological) gridded BC from coarser models runs and/or measurements
lateral outflowAdvective

Nesting

Chemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchangeEvery operator synchronization (typical: 100 to 1000 sec)
explain methodLinear approximation. Nesting with an arbitrary number of computational grids
variables nestedConcentrations
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksComputational grids fixed in time

Numeric

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantitiesHorizontal: Blackman cubic polynomials (Yamartino, 1993); vertical: hybrid semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson / fully implicit scheme (Yamartino et al., 1992)
additional informationOperator splitting with adaptive fractional steps
other
chemistry solverLSODE (Radhakrishnan e Hindmarsh, 1993) and Rosenbrock (Sandu et al., 1997)

Model resolution

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max20-50 km1000 m
min1 km10 m

Domain size

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max5000 km10000 m
min40 km3000 m

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examplesG. Zanini, T. Pignatelli, F. Monforti, G. Vialetto, L. Vitali, G. Brusasca, G. Calori, S. Finardi, P.Radice, C.Silibello (2005) The MINNI Project: An Integrated Assessment Modeling System For Policy Making. Proc.of MODSIM05, International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, Melbourne (Australia), 12-15 December 2005 Silibello C., Calori G., Arduino G., Contardi C. and Sordi F. (2005) Model based yearly air quality evaluation on Piemonte region. Proc. of 10th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Crete (Greece) 17-20 October 2005 Calori G., Finardi S., Nanni A., Radice P., Riccardo S., Bertello A., Pavone F. (2005) Long-term air quality modelling in Ivrea and Torino areas: sources contribution and scenario analysis. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005. Finardi S., DŽAllura A., Calori G., Silibello C., De Maria R., Cascone C., Lollobrigida F. (2005) Deterministic air quality forecasting system for Torino urban area: verification on winter and summer episodes. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Urban Air Quality, Valencia (Spain), 29-31 March 2005. Baklanov A., Bjergene N., Fay B., Finardi S., Gross A., Jantunen M., Kukkonen J., Rasmussen A., Skouloudis A., Slørdal L.H., Sokhi R.S. (2004) Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure (FUMAPEX). Proc. of 27th CCMS-NATO meeting, Banff (Canada), 25-29 October 2004.

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)Europe_2005