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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

BOLCHEM: BOlogna limited area model for meteorology and chemistry

General information

Model name and version

short nameBOLCHEM
full nameBOlogna limited area model for meteorology and chemistry
revision1.1.0
date2010-02-07
last change

Responsible for this information

namealberto maurizi
instituteCNR-ISAC
addressvia gobetti 101
zipi-40129
citybologna
countryitaly
phone+39 051 639 9615
fax+39 051 639 9658
e-maila.maurizi(belongs-to)isac.cnr.it

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
namealberto maurizi
instituteCNR-ISAC
divisionsvia gobetti 101
street
zipi-40129
citybologna
countryitaly
phone+39 051 639 9615
emaila.maurizi(belongs-to)isac.cnr.it
fax+39 051 639 9658

Model developer and model user

developer and userPresent contributors: Alberto Maurizi Massimo D'isidoro Felicita Russo Francesco Tampieri Meteorology developed by http://www.isac.cnr.it/~dinamica/ Mihaela Mircea Rita Cesari Claudia Pizzigalli Past contributors: Momme Butenschon Maria Gabriella Villani

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarksa suite of tools is under development for intermediate-knowledge users

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?availale for scientific collaboration or for operational use
more details

Minimum computer resources required

typedepends on the resolution
time needed for rundepends on the resolution
storagedepends on the resolution

Further information

documentation
model referencesMaurizi, A., M. D'Isidoro, and M. Mircea, 2007a: Bolchem, an integrated system for atmospheric dynamics and composition, Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, COST-728/NetFAM workshop proceedings. M. Mircea et al.: 'A comprehensive performance evaluation of the air quality model BOLCHEM over Italy'. 2008, In press. Mircea, M., M. D'Isidoro, A. Maurizi, L. Vitali, F. Monforti, G. Zanini, and F. Tampieri, 2007d: Saharan dust over italy: Simulations with regional air quality model bolchem, Proceedings of 29th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XIX, C. Borrego and A. I. Miranda, eds.
webpagehttp://bolchem.cnr.it/
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

PrognosticDiagnostic
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gases
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarksgeneric species are treated outside any chemical mecanism, each with its own physical and chemical transformation law (e.g. radioactivity, ...)

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarks

Parametrizations

Meteorology

turbulence schemeE-l
deep convectionKain-Frisch, 1990. J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2784-2802.
surface exchangeHeat and specific humidity fluxes are computed with iterative procedure based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.
surface temperatureSoil model (4 layers)
surface humiditySoil model (4 layers)
radiationInfrared and solar, interacting with clouds (Ritter and Geleyn, 1992, Mon. Wea. Rev. 120 (2), 303-325) + Morcrette J. J.
unresolved orographic dragroughness proportional to unresolved orographic variance
radiation in vegetation
radiation between obstacles
treatment of obstacles
clouds / rainMicro-physical processes included
remarks

Chemistry & transport

photolysis rateClear-sky photolysis rates are derived from a look-up table by means of solar elevation angle and corrected using the ratio between total and clear-sky short-wave net fluxes from the radiation scheme
dry depositionComputed following resistance analogy (M. J. Wesley. 1989.Atmos. Environ., 23. 1293-1304.).
wet depositionconstant scavenging coefficients that differ in/below cloud (http://www.emep.int/UniDoc/node12.html)
remarks

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)BOLCHEM can operate using two different gas phase chemistry schemes: SAPRC-90 and CB-IV.
wet phase chemistry (give details)no wet phase at present (under development)
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
other
nucleation
coagulation
condensation
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical properties
give detailsaero3 module

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transportInterpolated fields from global models or 1-way nest
meteorologyInterpolated fields from ECMWF or GFS or 1-way nest

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyNCAR-US-NAVY
land use
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyIFS (ecmwf) GFS (ncep)
concentrationsEMEP Mozart GEMS
emissionsEMEP GEMS/TNO ENEA (for italy) Cityzen/INERIS
remarks

Data assimilation

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
detailsAssimilation of TEMP and SYNOP data (u, v, T, q).Optimal Interpolation scheme tested for reactive gases.

Boundary conditions

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
surfaceSurface model usedEmissions/deposition
topNo vertical motion condition at the topInput from global model or 1-way nest
lateral inflowRelaxation conditionFields from global models or input from 1-way nest
lateral outflowRelaxation conditionoutflow/inflow condition

Nesting

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchangedepends on resolutiondepends on resolution
explain method
variables nestedAll prognostic variables
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksThe grid is staggered in the horizontal (Arakawa C) and in the vertical (Lorenz).

Numeric

Meteorology

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
other

Spatial discretisation

momentum equations
scalar quantities
additional information
other

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantities
additional information
other
chemistry solvermodified lsode

Model resolution

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max50~100
min6-7 ~30

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
maxsame as meteosame as meteo
minsame as meteosame as meteo

Domain size

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max~30000
min~30000

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
maxsame as meteo
minsame as meteo

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examples

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)