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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

MM5 (UoA-GR): Fifth Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model

General information

Model name and version

short nameMM5 (UoA-GR)
full nameFifth Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model
revisionMM5 3.6.1
dateMay 2005
last change

Responsible for this information

nameAggeliki Dandou
instituteUniversity of Athens
addressUniversity Campus, Build. Physics V, Zografou
zip157 84
cityAthens
countryGreece
phone+30 210 7276837
fax+30 210 7295281
e-mailantant(belongs-to)phys.uoa.gr

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameAggeliki Dandou
instituteUniversity of Athens
divisionsUniversity Campus, Build. Physics V, Zografou
street
zip157 84
cityAthens
countryGreece
phone+30 210 7276837
emailantant(belongs-to)phys.uoa.gr
fax+30 210 7295281

Model developer and model user

developer and userPenn State University and NCAR, USA as a community mesoscale model with contributions from users worldwide. The model has been modified from our group in order to take into account urbanized features in the MRF PBL scheme according to Dandou et al. (2005)

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other usestudies for regulatory perposes

Model code available?

is available?yes
more details

Minimum computer resources required

typeUnix workstation with 128 Mb memory and 1-2 Gb disk. PC running Linux with Portland Group Fortran and c compiler
time needed for rundepends on domain size and resoltion
storage

Further information

documentationA Description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/mm5-home.html)
model referencesAn extensive list of publications can be seen at the model homepage http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/mm5-home.html
webpagehttp://www.mmm.ucar.edu/mm5/mm5-home.html
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

PrognosticDiagnostic
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables iatmospheric radiation tendency, Pstar, ground temperature, accumulative convective rain, accumulative nonconvective rain, PBL height, PB regime, surface sensible heat flux, surface latent heat flux, frictional velocity, surface downward shortwave radiatio
other variables ii
other variables iii

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarksMM5 3.6.1 is a non-hydrostatic model

Parametrizations

Meteorology

turbulence schemeBulk PBL, high resolution Blackadar PBL, Burk. Thompson PBL, Eta PBL, MRF PBL, Gayno-Seaman PBL, Pleim-Chang PBL
deep convectionestimated in selected PBL sheme
surface exchangeestimated in selected PBL sheme
surface temperatureestimated in selected PBL sheme
surface humidityStable precipitation, warm rain, simple ice, Mixed-Phase, Goddard microphysics, Reinsner graupel, Schultz microphysics
radiationsimple cooling, surface radiation, clod-radiation scheme, CCM2 radiation scheme, RRTM longwave scheme
unresolved orographic drag
radiation in vegetation
radiation between obstacles
treatment of obstacles
clouds / rainAnthes-Kuo, Grell, Arakawa-Schubert, Fritsch-Chappell, Kain-Fritsch, Betts-Miller
remarks

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transport
meteorologyREGRID pre-processor reads archived gridded meteorological analyses and forecasts on pressure levels and interpolate those analyses from some native grid and map projection to the horizontal grid and map projection as defined by the MM5 preprocessor program TERRAIN. REGRID handles pressure-level and surface analyses. Two-dimensional interpolation is performed on these levels. Other types of levels, such as constant height surfaces, isentropic levels or model sigma or eta levels, are not handled.

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyUSGS
land useUSGS
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyECMWF forecasts AVN forecasts ERA40 and ERA15 reanalysis datasets (ECMWF data) NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets
concentrations
emissions
remarks

Data assimilation

Meteorology
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
detailsFDDA is a method of running a full-physics model while incorporating observations. Thus the model equations assure a dynamical consistency while the observations keep the model close to the true conditions and make up for errors and gaps in the initial analysis and deficiencies in model physics. The MM5 model uses the Newtonian-relaxation or nudging technique.

Boundary conditions

Meteorology
surfaceThe LOWBDY_DOMAINx file provides sea-surface temperature, substrate temperature, and optionally snow cover and sea-ice. The switch ISSTVAR allows multiple times in this file (created by INTERPF) to be read in as the model runs, which is the method of updating these fields in long-term simulations.
top- No upper boundary condition - Rigid lid with no vertical motion at the model top. This may be preferable for very coarse mesh simulations (50 km or more grids). 1. Upper radiative condition - Top vertical motion calculated to reduce reflection of energy from the model top preventing some spurious noise or energy build-up over topography. This is recommended for grid-lengths below 50 km. It works better for hydrostatic gravity wave scales, rather than inertial or nonhydrostatic scales.
lateral inflow1 - Fixed 2 - Time-dependent/Nest Outer two rows and columns have specified values of all predicted fields. Recommended for nests where time-dependent values are supplied by the parent domain. Not recommended for coarse mesh where only one outer row and column would be specified. 3 - Relaxation/inflow-outflow Outer row and column is specified by time-dependent value, next four points are relaxed towards the boundary values with a relaxation constant that decreases linearly away from the boundary.
lateral outflowseveral options are available: fixed; Sponge Boundary Conditions;Nudging Boundary Conditions

Nesting

Meteorology
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchangeruns three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain
explain methodOne-way nesting When a single-domain or multiple-domain run completes, its domain output can be put into NESTDOWN to create an input file with higher resolution (any integer ratio in dx) and new lateral and lower boundary files. Two-way nesting Multiple domains can be run in MM5 at the same time. Up to nine domains on four levels of nest are allowed with each nest level one third of its parent domain's grid-length. Each domain takes information from its parent domain every timestep, and runs three timesteps for each parent step before feeding back information to the parent domain on the coincident interior points.
variables nested
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksDepending on the domain location the user can chose three types of map projections: Lambert conformal, Mercator or Polar Stereographic

Numeric

Meteorology

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
otherA second-order leapfrog time-step scheme is used for these equations, but some terms are handled using a time-splitting scheme.

Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsplease check te on-line tutorial
scalar quantitiesplease check te on-line tutorial
additional information
other

Model resolution

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max90 km
min2 km8 km

Domain size

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max2000 km
min25 km

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examplesDandou A., M. Tombrou., E. Akylas, N. Soulakellis and E. Bossioli E. (2005): ‘Development and evaluation of an urban parameterization scheme in the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5)’, Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres, 110, D10102, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005192 Dandou A., E. Bossioli, M. Tombrou, N. Sifakis, D. Paronis, N. Soulakellis, D. Sarigiannis (2002), ‘The importance of mixing height in characterising pollution levels from aerosol optical thickness derived by satellite’, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus: 2, 17-28 Tombrou M., Dandou A., Aggelopoulos G., Helmis C., Akylas E., Floca H., Assimakopoulou V. and Soulakellis N. (2005) : ‘The Impact of Various PBL Parameterization Schemes on the Evolution of Mixing Height’ The 5th International Conference on Urban Air Quality, Valencia, Spain, 29-31 March 2005

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)