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Note:
More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

MC2-AQ: Mesoscale Compressible Community - Air Quality

General information

Model name and version

short nameMC2-AQ
full nameMesoscale Compressible Community - Air Quality
revisionv. 4.9.8 (meteorology)
date
last change

Responsible for this information

nameJoanna Struzewska
instituteWarsaw University of Technology
addressNowowiejska 20
zip00653
cityWarsaw
countryPoland
phone+48 22 660 55 03
fax+48 22 625 43 05
e-mailjoanna.struzewska(belongs-to)is.pw.edu.pl

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameJoanna Struzewska
instituteWarsaw University of Technology
divisionsNowowiejska 20
street
zip00653
cityWarsaw
countryPoland
phone+48 22 660 55 03
emailjoanna.struzewska(belongs-to)is.pw.edu.pl
fax+48 22 625 43 05

Model developer and model user

developer and userRecherche en Prévision Numérique (RPN) division of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC), Environment Canada The Multiscale Air Quality Modelling Network (MAQNet) York University, Toronto, Canada Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?yes
more detailsmeteorological model MC2: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/rpn.comm/wiki/doku.php?id=mc2

Minimum computer resources required

type
time needed for run
storage

Further information

documentationmeteorological model MC2: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/rpn.comm/wiki/doku.php?id=mc2
model referencesYang, R.J., A.G. Xia, D.V. Michelangeli, D.A. Plummer, L. Neary, J.W. Kaminski, J.C. McConnell, Evaluating a Canadian regional air quality model using ground-based observations in north-eastern Canada and United States, J. Environ. Monit., 40-46, 2003. Kaminski, J.W., D.A. Plummer, L. Neary, J.C. McConnell, J. Struzewska and L. Lobocki, First Application of MC2AQ to Multiscale Air Quality Modelling over Europe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 27, 1517-1524, 2002. Plummer, D.A., J.C. McConnell, L. Neary, J. Kaminski, R. Benoit, J. Drummond, J. Narayan, V. Young and D.R. Hastie, Assessment of emissions data for the Toronto region using aircraft-based measurements and an air quality model, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 6453-6463, 2001.
webpage
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

PrognosticDiagnostic
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gasesPAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate)
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarks

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarksFully compressible, non hydrostatic Euler equations [Tanguay et al. 1990; Benoit et al. 1997}

Parametrizations

Meteorology

turbulence schemeturbulence variables (TKE, mixing length,...) for a partly cloudy boundary layer, in the framework of a unified turbulence-cloudiness formulation. Uses moist conservative variables diagnostic relations for the mixing and dissipation lengths, and a predictive equation for moist TKE. Mixing length formulation based on Bougeault and Lacarrere.
deep convectionseveral schemes available, but not used for tracer transport: classical Manabe-type moist convective adjustment scheme (Daley et al., 1976), three Kuo-type schemes, relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme ((Moorthi and Suarez, 1992), Fritsch-Chappell convective scheme (Fritsch and Chappell, 1980)
surface exchange'Force-Restore' method or ISBA scheme
surface temperature
surface humidity
radiationadvanced scheme in finding the infrared and solar radiation and calculation of clouds (Infra-red rate of cooling, Visible rate of heating, Visible flux to ground, Infra-red flux to ground, Infra-red flux to the top of the atmosphere, Visible flux to the top of the atmosphere, Planetary albedo)
unresolved orographic draggravity wave drag parameterization is based on a simplified linear theory for vertically propagating gravity waves generated in statically stable flow over mesoscale orographic varations (McFarlane, 1987)
radiation in vegetation
radiation between obstacles
treatment of obstacles
clouds / rainexplicit microphysics for cold cloud (warm + cold, graupel category included) - combined Kong & Yau (1997, AO, Gamma distribution for ice/snow) microphysics with graupel
remarks

Chemistry & transport

photolysis rateSpatially and temporally varying clear-sky photolysis rates are derived from a pre-calculated look-up table. Photolysis rates are stored for 10 height levels up to 20 km, 13 solar zenith angles and 5 different values of the surface albedo, with linear interpolation used to derive photolysis rates at intermediate values of these variables. Correction of the clear-sky photolysis rates for the presence of clouds is performed with the method used in RADM (Chang et al., 1987).
dry depositionAlain Rabichaud (based on Wesley approach); Rabichaud, 1994
wet depositionsimplified scheme based on constant scavenging coefficient for selected species and rain rate
remarks

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)The gas-phase chemistry mechanism used in the MC2AQ model has been taken from the Acid Deposition and Oxidants Model (ADOM) (Venkatram et al., 1988). Version two of the ADOM chemical mechanism, derived from the condensed mechanism of Lurmann et al. (1986), has been used in this study Significant differences between version two of the ADOM mechanism (ADOM-II) and the original mechanism include an explicit treatment of atomic oxygen, O(3P) and O(1D), and the treatment of isoprene as a separate species. The ADOM-II mechanism is comprised of 47 species, 98 chemical reactions and 16 photolysis reactions.
wet phase chemistry (give details)
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
other
nucleation
coagulation
condensation
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical properties
give details

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transport
meteorologyMC2 model uses a type of dynamic initialization. This is performed by first integrating the model forward intime for a small, O(10), number of timesteps (without physics) and then backward to the starting time to begin the forecast itself. As in other models, the initialization timestep is usually smaller then the one used for the regular intergration.

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyhttp://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/rpn.comm/wiki/doku.php?id=gengeo
land usehttp://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/rpn.comm/wiki/doku.php?id=gengeo
obstacles
vegetation
meteorology-) CMC or NCEP analysis -) global GEM model results -) MC2 model results in cascade mode
concentrations-) global CTM model results -) GEM-AQ global tropospheric chemistry model results -) MC2-AQ moel results in cascade mode All chemical species are input in volume mixing ratios
emissionsdifferent datasets, depending on the experiment and the inventories available for the area of interest
remarks

Data assimilation

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
details

Boundary conditions

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
surfacevarious geophysical and climatological fields (land-sea mask, roughness length, sea surface temperature, land surface temperature, deep soil temperature, soil wetness, snow fraction on the ground, sea ice, surface albedo)
toprigid lid with no vertical motion at the model top
lateral inflowtime varying meteorological fields coming either from global model (GEM-AQ) results or from objective anaysistime varying concentrations coming from global model (GEM-AQ) results
lateral outflow

Nesting

MeteorologyChemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchange
explain methodOpen boundaries for one-way nesting implemented for semi-Lagrangian advection Open boundaries for one-way nesting implemented for semi-Lagrangian advection
variables nested
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarksvertical: Hybrid Terrain Following Vertical coordinate [SLEVE variation of Gal-Chen, Shaer et al. 2002] horizontal: rotated lat/long, polar-stereographic, mercator

Numeric

Meteorology

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
other

Spatial discretisation

momentum equations
scalar quantities
additional informationThe discretization of the space derivatives is by finite differences on a grid staggered in the three dimensions. This arrangement is known as a Arakawa C-grid for the horizontal and a Tokioka B-grid for the vertical. The center of the elementary matrix is the pressure surrounded horizontally by U and V, and surrounded vertically by w, W and the scalars.
othersemi-Lagrangian

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantities
additional informationTracers are treated as scalars.
othersemi-Lagrangian
chemistry solverThe species are solved depending on their lifetime and reaction rates. Very short lived species such as atomic oxygen are assumed to be in photochemical steady state. A semi-implicit method is used for long lived species and the implicit Newton's method is used for species that interact rapidly with others.

Model resolution

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max100
min1

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max100
min1

Domain size

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max
min

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max
min

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examplesESCOMPTE Modelling Exercise project -> Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J.W.; Neary L., The impact of vertical transport on free troposphere composition during ESCOMPTE field experiment, IOP2 MC2-AQ model simulations. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.7 European Geosciences Union, 2005. CITY-DELTA project (JRC) -> Struzewska J., Kaminski J., Łobocki L. Application of MC2-AQ and GEM-AQ models to long-term air quality simulation over Europe – contribution to CityDelta/EuroDelta projects. Proc. 9-th Int. Conf. on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes. Garmish -Partenkirshen, 2004. Warsaw University of Technology projects: Impact of large scale meteorological conditions on the formation of high ozone concentration in the lower troposphere -> Kaminski J., Plummer D., Neary L., McConnell J., Struzewska J., Łobocki L. First application of MC2-AQ to multiscale air quality modelling over Europe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Nr 27. 2002. Transport and chemical transformation of ozone and its precursors in the cold front zone - a modelling study -> Zdunek, M.; Kaminski, J. W.; Struzewska, J.; Lobocki, L. MC2-AQ simulations of ground level ozone during cold front passage over Europe - a case study Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.7 European Geosciences Union, 2005 Impact of the emission reduction on summer smog episodes in urban areas - the modelling study (State Committee for Science Research Project) -> Strużewska J., Łobocki L., Zdunek M., Kamiński J., McConnell J., Neary L. High resolution air quality simulation with MC2-AQ over Central Europe. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol.5 European Geosciences Union, 2003

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)