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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

Hirlam: High Resolution Limited Area Model

General information

Model name and version

short nameHirlam
full nameHigh Resolution Limited Area Model
revisionVersion 6.3.5a + some local changes
date05-07-2005
last change

Responsible for this information

nameGertie Geertsema
institute
addressbilthoven
zip
city
countryNetherlands
phone+31 30 2206890
fax
e-mailgertie(belongs-to)knmi.nl

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameGertie Geertsema
institute
divisionsbilthoven
street
zip
city
countryNetherlands
phone+31 30 2206890
emailgertie(belongs-to)knmi.nl
fax

Model developer and model user

developer and userHirlam consortium is the model developer KNMI uses model and its output in operational forecasting department Other users are government agencies (water management) and commercial users outside KNMI (weather forecasting, wind energy forecasting)

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarksIf used at ECMWF, then it is fairly simple

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?yes
more detailsFor Hirlam consortia members or for research

Minimum computer resources required

typeSUN Fire15K
time needed for run40 minutes / 48 h forecast
storage3GB per run

Further information

documentationsee http://hirlam.knmi.nl/
model references
webpagehttp://hirlam.knmi.nl/
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

PrognosticDiagnostic
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarks

Parametrizations

Meteorology

turbulence schemeCBR (Cuxart Bougeault Lacarrere) plus changes in length scale formulation, order 1.5 TKE scheme
deep convectionSTRACO (Soft TRansition COndensation), adjusted Kuo scheme
surface exchangeISBA (Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) scheme, tile scheme with 5 different tiles
surface temperatureForce restore method
surface humidity
radiationSimple and fast Savijarvi scheme
unresolved orographic dragparameterized through orographic roughness, no gravity wave drag parameterization
radiation in vegetation
radiation between obstacles
treatment of obstacles
clouds / rainSTRACO
remarks

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transport
meteorologyLaunching DFI a 2-h forward forecast is filtered with DFI and used as starting point for the forecast. The forecast therefore actually starts at analysis time +1h

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyGTOPO30
land usePELCOM
obstacles
vegetation
meteorology
concentrations
emissions
remarks

Data assimilation

Meteorology
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
details

Boundary conditions

Meteorology
surfaceprescibed SST
top
lateral inflowECMWF boundary condition files
lateral outflowECMWF boundary condition files

Nesting

Meteorology
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchange6h
explain method
variables nestedu,v,t,q,p
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarks

Numeric

Meteorology

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
other

Spatial discretisation

momentum equations
scalar quantities
additional information
otherSemi-Lagrangean

Model resolution

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max227000
min2232

Domain size

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max600030000
min800032

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examples

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)