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More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

LOTOS-EUROS: LOTOS-EUROS

General information

Model name and version

short nameLOTOS-EUROS
full nameLOTOS-EUROS
revision
date29 november 2012
last change

Responsible for this information

nameRenske Timmermans
instituteTNO
addressP.O. Box 342
zip7300 AH
cityApeldoorn
countryNetherlands
phone+31 (0) 55 549 3956
fax+31 (0) 55 549 3252
e-mailrenske.timmermans(belongs-to)tno.nl

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameMartijn Schaap or Renske Timmermans
instituteTNO
divisionsClimate, air and sustainability
streetP.O. Box 80015
zip3508 TA
cityUtrecht
countryThe Netherlands
phone+31 (0) 8886 62074
emailmartijn.schaap@tno.nl
fax+31(0)8886 62044

Model developer and model user

developer and userdeveloper: TNO user: TNO, RIVM, KNMI

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other useforecasting

Model code available?

is available?no
more details

Minimum computer resources required

typePC
time needed for run2-3 days for full year
storage

Further information

documentationLOTOS-EUROS documentation (Schaap et al. 2005), available via www.lotos-euros.nl
model referencesSchaap, M., H.A.C. Denier Van Der Gon, F.J. Dentener, A.J.H. Visschedijk, M. Van Loon, H.M. Ten Brink, J-P Putaud, B. Guillaume, C. Liousse and P.J.H. Builtjes (2004), Anthropogenic Black Carbon and Fine Aerosol Distribution over Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18201, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004330 Schaap, M., van Loon, M., ten Brink, H.M., Dentener, F.D., Builtjes, P.J.H. (2004), Secondary inorganic aerosol simulations for Europe with special attention to nitrate, Atmos. Phys. Chem., 4, 857-874 C. Robles Gonz├ílez, C., Schaap, M., de Leeuw, G., Builtjes, P. J. H., van Loon, M. (2003), Spatial variation of aerosol properties over Europe derived from satellite observations and comparison with model calculations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 521–533, 2003
webpagehttp://www.lotos-euros.nl
additional information

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

Input data
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables i
other variables ii
other variables iii

Chemical substances

PrognosticDiagnosticDry depositionWet depositionInput data
SO2
NO
NO2
NOX
NH3
HNO3
O3
CH4
DMS
H2O2
VOC
C6H6
HCHO
CO
CO2
POP
PM 10
PM 2.5
PPM10
PM 0.1
PM 1
NH4
SO4
dust
sea salt
BC
POM
SOA
NO3
Other gases
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
Cd
Pb
other heavymetals
pesticides
1st radioactivity
2nd radioactivity
3rd radioactivity
remarks

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarks

Parametrizations

Chemistry & transport

photolysis ratePHUX
dry depositionErisman et al. 1994, Zhang 2001
wet depositionsimple scavenging coefficients
remarks

Chemical reactions

Gas & wet phase chemistry

chemical transformations calculated
chemical transformations neglected
other
gas phase chemistry (give details)CBMIV or CB99
wet phase chemistry (give details)sulphur oxidation: explicit or parametrized
more information

Aerosol chemistry

passive aerosol
dry aerosol
wet aerosol
sectional approach
modal approach
otherBulk approach
nucleation
coagulation
condensation
aerosol mixing
aerosol ageing
primary aerosol formation
aerosol-gas phase interactions
optical properties
give detailsISORROPIA II, EQSAM

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transportinterpolation of boundary conditions or restart files
meteorology

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyfrom meteo
land usePELINDA and CORINE/SMIATEK
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyECMWF, RACMO
concentrationsboundary conditions: from TM5 or Mozart model, EMAC or Logan climatology (ozone) or measurements
emissionsTNO, MACC or EMEP emission database
remarks

Data assimilation

Chemistry & transport
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
detailsEnsemble Kalman Filter

Boundary conditions

Chemistry & transport
surfacesoil module for POPs
topTM5/Mozart/Logan climatology/measurements
lateral inflowTM5/Mozart/Logan climatology/measurements
lateral outflow

Nesting

Chemistry & transport
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchangehourly
explain method
variables nestedAll
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarks

Numeric

Chemistry & transport

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler
Lagrange
Gauss

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
time step same as meteorology
other

Spatial discretisation

scalar quantities
additional information
other
chemistry solvertwo-step

Model resolution

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max5 x 5 km4 layers
min0.5 x 0.25 degree3 layers

Domain size

Chemistry & transport

HorizontalVertical
max40E 70N3500
min15W 35Nsurface

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examplesA.M.M. Manders, M. Schaap, X. Querol, M.F.M.A. Albert, J. Vercauteren, T.A.J. Kuhlbusch, R. Hoogerbrugge, Sea salt concentrations across the European continent Atmospheric Environment, 44 (20), 2434-2442. R.M.A. Timmermans , A.J. Segers, P.J.H. Builtjes, R. Vautard, R. Siddans, H. Elbern, S.A.T. Tjemkes, M. Schaap, The Added Value of a Proposed Satellite Imager for Ground Level Particulate Matter Analyses and Forecasts, IEEE-JSTARS (Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, pp. 271-283. A.M.M. Manders, M. Schaap , R. Hoogerbrugge , Testing the capability of the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS to forecast PM10 levels in the Netherlands, Atmospheric Environment, pp. 4050-459. Schaap, M., H.A.C. Denier Van Der Gon, F.J. Dentener, A.J.H. Visschedijk, M. Van Loon, H.M. Ten Brink, J-P Putaud, B. Guillaume, C. Liousse and P.J.H. Builtjes (2004), Anthropogenic Black Carbon and Fine Aerosol Distribution over Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18201, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004330 Schaap, M., van Loon, M., ten Brink, H.M., Dentener, F.D., Builtjes, P.J.H. (2004), Secondary inorganic aerosol simulations for Europe with special attention to nitrate, Atmos. Phys. Chem., 4, 857-874 C. Robles Gonz├ílez, C., Schaap, M., de Leeuw, G., Builtjes, P. J. H., van Loon, M. (2003), Spatial variation of aerosol properties over Europe derived from satellite observations and comparison with model calculations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 521–533, 2003

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)