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List, classification & detail view

Note:
More information on some input arrays can be found when moving the cursor above the corresponding field in the questionnaire. Those fields are also explained in the glossary.

LME: Lokalmodell Europa

General information

Model name and version

short nameLME
full nameLokalmodell Europa
revision
date28 Sep 2005, version LME 3.16
last change

Responsible for this information

nameBarbara Fay
instituteDWD
addressKaiserleistr. 42
zip63067
cityOffenbach
countryGermany
phone++49 69 8062 2748
fax++49 69 8062 3721
e-mailbarbara.fay(belongs-to)dwd.de

Additional information on the model

Contact person for model code

same as person above
nameJan-Peter Schulz
instituteDWD
divisionsFE13
streetKaiserleistr. 42
zip63067
cityOffenbach
countryGermany
phone++49 69 8062 2742
emailjan-peter.schulz@dwd.de
fax++49 69 8062 2731

Model developer and model user

developer and userGerman Weather Service (DWD) and COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling, consisting of European Met. Services, http://cosmo-model.cscs.ch

Level of Knowledge needed to operate model

basic
intermediate
advanced
remarks

Model use at your institution

operational
for research
other use

Model code available?

is available?yes
more detailsonly for COSMO members and for research purposes

Minimum computer resources required

typelarge parallel supercomputers
time needed for runca. 30min for 24h forecast
storagevery extensive

Further information

documentation
model referencesSteppeler, J., Doms, G., Sch├Ąttler, U., Bitzer, H.W., Gassmann, A., Damrath, U., Gregoric, G.: Meso-gamma scale forecasts using the nonhydrostatic model LM. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 82 (1 - 4), 75 - 96, 2003.
webpagehttp://cosmo-model.cscs.ch
additional informationVarious model scientific and implementation documentations available at DWD and COSMO website

Model properties

Model type

2D
3D
meteorology
chemistry & transport

Model scale

microscale
mesoscale
macroscale
short term
long term

Meteorological variables

PrognosticDiagnostic
u
v
w
ζ
pv
T
θ
θl
p
Gph
ρ
qv
qt
qlc
qf
qsc
qlr
qsh
qsg
qss
N
E
ε
K
zi
other variables iremark: most diagnostic parameters ,
other variables iideduced in LME or postprocessing;
other variables iiimix. height from separ. post-processor

Approximations

Boussinesq
anelastic
hydrostatic
flat earth
remarksnon-hydrostatic compressible

Parametrizations

Meteorology

turbulence schemeprognostic level 2.5 after Mellor and Yamada (1974)
deep convectionmass flux scheme based on Tiedtke (1989)
surface exchangerefined surface layer scheme incl. laminar BL (roughness layer) based on TKE equation
surface temperaturefrom LME 7-layer prognostic soil model, heat conduction equation (Schrodin and Heise (2001) in C0SMO Tech. Rep. 2
surface humidityfrom LME 6-layer prognostic soil model, incl. freeze and thaw of soil moisture.
radiationdelta-two-stream method after Ritter and Geleyn (1992)
unresolved orographic dragorographic drag considered in TKE scheme
radiation in vegetation
radiation between obstacles
treatment of obstacles
clouds / rainelaborate Kessler-type scheme incl. cloud water and ice, rain water and snow.
remarks

Initialization & boundary treatment

Initialization

chemistry & transport
meteorologyoperationally: model analysis also possible: interpolated Globalmodell GME analyses with digital filter after Lynch (1997)

Input data (name sources for data, e.g. website)

orographyGLOBE data set of NOAA/NGDC (1km)
land useCORINE data set (1km) , EOS-sat. system (NASA, 250m)
obstacles
vegetation
meteorologyWMO operational world-wide land (Synop,climat..), ship, airplane and satellite measurements, radiosoundings etc., via national and global networks
concentrations
emissions
remarks

Data assimilation

Meteorology
nudging technique
adjoint model
3D-VAR
4D-VAR
OI
detailscontinuous 4D nudging assim. after Schraff (1996), for horizontal wind, Tpot, rel. hum. on all model levels and surface pressure. Plus variational soil moisture analysis and SST analys. and snow height analysis.

Boundary conditions

Meteorology
surfacefriction boundary conditions boundary conditions for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances, non-penetrative for grid-scale mass fluxes, free slip for u and v, extrapolated boundary cond. for pressure disturbance.
topRayleigh damping layer,non-penetrative boundary conditions = rigid lid with free-slip condition for horiz. vel., temp. and water substances.
lateral inflowinterpolation from DWD's global model GME,with relaxation boundary condition after Davies(1976) for all prognostic variables except vert. velocity.
lateral outflow

Nesting

Meteorology
one way
two way
other
variables nested
nesting online
nesting offline
data exchange by array
data exchange by file
time step for data exchange1 hour
explain methodspecial LME-based interpolation tool
variables nested??
other

Solution technique

Coordinate system and projection

Horizontal

cartesian
Lambert conformal
latitude / longitude
rotated lat. / long.

Vertical

z coordinate
surface fitted grid
pressurecoordinate
sigma coordinate
remarkshybrid pressure(at top of atmos.)and sigma coordinate

Numeric

Meteorology

Grid

Arakawa A
Arakawa B
Arakawa C
Arakawa D
Arakawa E
uniform grid
nonuniform grid
Euler

Time integration

explicit
split-explicit
semi-implicit
othersplit-explicit for 2 and 3 time levels

Spatial discretisation

momentum equationsgrid point method with finite difference approximation
scalar quantitiesgrid point method with finite difference approximation
additional information
other

Model resolution

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max~20km2800m = highest layer
min~1km20m = lowest layer

Domain size

Meteorology

HorizontalVertical
max665 x 657 grid points X 7km
minoperational at DWD:operational: 22000

Model Validation and Application

Validation & evaluation

Used validation & evaluation methods

analytic solutions
evaluated reference dataset
model intercomparison
additional validation & evaluation efforts
remarks

Application examples

application examplesdaily operational mesoscale weather forecasts in 7 COSMO member Met. Services

Participation in specific model evaluation exercises

AQMEII
List experiments (AQMEII)
Cost728
List experiments (COST728)
HTAP
List experiments (HTAP)
MEGAPOLI
List experiments (MEGAPOLI)